Year 2019, Volume 6 , Issue 2, Pages 325 - 337 2019-12-13

The Relations between Student Cynicism and Students’ Life Satisfaction

Gamze Kasalak [1]


The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between student cynicism and students’ life satisfaction. This study is in correlational survey model. The sample of the study consists of 554 Turkish high school students, who were selected by simple random sampling method. Findings show that female students have more cynical attitudes towards their schools than male students. And, female students are less satisfied with their school and living environment but more satisfied with their friends than male students. Students who think about studying at another school have higher levels of student cynicism but lower levels of school satisfaction and living environment satisfaction than those who do not think so. The findings reveal the negative relationships between student cynicism and students’ life satisfaction. The strongest relationship has been determined to be between institutional cynicism and reduced sense of school satisfaction. Path analysis indicates that four subscales of student cynicism affect students’ life satisfaction. It is possible to examine the premises that lead to the perception of student cynicism and their impacts. For future research, it is recommended to examine the ways to alleviate the negative effects of student cynicism and improve the outcomes.


Cynicism, Student cynicism, Life satisfaction, Students' Life satisfaction
  • Andersson, L. M., & Bateman, T. S. (1997). Cynicism in the workplace: Some causes and effects. The Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18(5), 449-469.
  • Anderson, J.C & Gerbing, D.W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review of recommended two-step approach, Psychological Bulletin 103(3), 411-423, doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.103.3.411.
  • Arabacı, İ. B. (2010). The effects of depersonalization and organizational cynicism levels on the job satisfaction of educational inspectors. African Journal of Business Management, 4(13), 2802-811.
  • Aşık, T. (2008). İlköğretimde yöneltme öneri formu uygulamasının öğrencilerin okul alan seçiminde etkilerinin belirlenmesi [Applications of orientation proposal forms? Effects on primary school students? chooses of educational type and educational field]. (Unpublished Master Thesis). Çukurova University Graduate School of Social Sciences, Adana.
  • Atalayin, C., Balkis, M., Tezel, H., Onal, B., & Kayrak, G. (2015). The prevalence and consequences of burnout on a group of preclinical dental students. European journal of dentistry, 9(3), 356-363.
  • Aytekin, A. (2005). Meslek seçimini etkileyen sosyo-ekonomik ve kültürel faktörler (Isparta örneği) etiketler. [Socio-economic and cultural factors affecting to choose professions (The case study of Isparta)] (Unpublished Master Thesis). Süleyman Demirel University Graduate School of Social Sciences, Isparta.
  • Bacanlı, F. (2008). Career decision-making difficulties of Turkish adolescents. Paper presented at Counseling International Perspective: Global Demands and Local Needs, Bahçeşehir University, İstanbul, Turkey, April 25-27.
  • Bailey, T. C., Eng, W., Frisch, M. B., & Snyder, C. R. (2007). Hope and optimism as related to life satisfaction. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 2(3), 168-175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17439760701409546.
  • Balcı, A. (2005). Sosyal bilimlerde araştırma: Yöntem, teknikler ve ilkeler[Research in social sciences: Methods, techniques and principles]. Ankara: PegemA Publishing.
  • Barefoot, J. C., Dodge, K. A., Peterson, B. L., Dahlstrom, W. G., & Williams, R. B. (1989). The Cook-Medley Hostility scale: Item content and ability to predict survival. Psychosomatic Medicine, 51(1), 46-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006842-198901000-00005.
  • Becker, H.S., & Geer, B. (1958). The fate of idealism in medical school. American Sociological Review, 23, 50-56
  • Bedian, A. (2007). Even if the Tower is “Ivory”, It isn’t “White”: Understanding the consequences of faculty cynicism. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 6(1), 9-32.
  • Brands, W. G., Bronkhorst, E. M., & Welie, J. V. (2011). Professional ethics and cynicism amongst Dutch dental students. European Journal of Dental Education, 15(4), 205-209. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0579.2010.00657.x.
  • Brandes, P. M. (1997). Organizational cynicism: Its nature, antecedents, and consequences. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Cincinnati, Ohio.
  • Brockway, J. H., Carlson, K. A., Jones, S. K., & Bryant, F. B. (2002). Development and validation of a scale for measuring cynical attitudes toward college. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(1), 210-224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.94.1.210.
  • Brown, M., & Cregan, C. (2008). Organizational change cynicism: The role of employee involvement. Human Resource Management, 47(4), 667-686.
  • Capri, B., Ozkendir, O.M., Ozkurt, B. & Karakus, F. (2012). General self-efficacy beliefs, life satisfaction and burnout of university students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 47, 968-973. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.765.
  • Cazan, A. M., & Năstasă, L. E. (2015). Emotional intelligence, satisfaction with life and burnout among university students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 180, 1574- 1578. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.02.309
  • Chen, S. X., Lam, B. C. P., Wu, W. C. H., Ng, J. C. K., Buchtel, E. E., Guan, Y., & Deng, H. (2016). Do people’s world views matter? The why and how. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 110(5), 743-765. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000061.
  • Dean Jr, J. W., Brandes, P., & Dharwadkar, R. (1998). Organizational cynicism. The Academy of Management Review, 23(2), 341- 352
  • Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95(3), 542-575.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.95.3.542.
  • Duarte, F. (2010). Addressing student cynicism through transformative learning. Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice, 7(1), 1-15.
  • Eaton, J. A. (2000). A social motivation approach to organizational cynicism, Unpublished Master’s thesis, York University, Toronto, Ontario.
  • Eken, O. (2018). Anksiyetenin yaşam doyumu üzerindeki etkisinde tükenmişliğin aracı rolü [The effect of anxiety on life satisfaction: The mediator role of burnout]. (Unpublished Master Thesis), Beykent University Graduate School of Social Sciences, İstanbul.
  • Farwa, U., Hussain, M., Afzal, M., & Gilani, S. A. (2019). The Role of age, gender and socio-economic status in self-esteem and life satisfaction of nursing students, Journal of Health, Medicine and Nursing, 62, 178-186, doı: 10.7176/JHMN.
  • Gedutienė, R., & Lukšaitė-Samaitienė, I. (2018). Psychometric properties of Lithuanian version of multidimensional students’ life satisfaction scale. Educational Psychology, 29, 5-22.
  • Gilman, R., Ashby, J. S., Sverko, D., Florell, D., & Varjas, K. (2005). The relationship between perfectionism and multidimensional life satisfaction among Croatian and American youth. Personality and Individual Differences, 39(1), 155-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2004.12.014.
  • Gilman, R., Huebner, E.S., Tian, L., Park, N., O’Byrne, J., Schiff, M., Sverko, D., & Langknecht, H. (2008). Cross-national adolescent multidimensional life satisfaction reports: Analyses of mean scores and response style differences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(2), 142-154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-007-9172-8.
  • Goldner, F. H., Ritti, R. R., & Ference, T. P. (1977). The production of cynical knowledge in organizations. American Sociological Review, 42(4), 539-551.
  • Guzmán, J., Green, J. G., Oblath, R., & Holt, M. K. (2019). Life satisfaction mediates the association between mental health risk and perceptions of school functioning among children and adolescents. Contemporary School Psychology, 1-11.
  • Hançerlioğlu, O. (1993). Dünya inançları sözlüğü [World beliefs dictionary]. İstanbul: Remzi Publishing.
  • Hawi, N. S., & Samaha, M. (2017). The relations among social media addiction, self-esteem, and life satisfaction in university students. Social Science Computer Review, 35(5), 576-586. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0894439316660340
  • Huebner, E. S. (1994). Preliminary development and validation of a multidimensional life satisfaction scale for children. Psychological Assessment, 6(2), 149-158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.6.2.149
  • In, H., Kim, H., & Carney, J. V. (2019). The relation of social skills and school climate of diversity to children's life satisfaction: The mediating role of school connectedness. Psychology in the Schools, 1023–103. DOI: 10.1002/pits.22247
  • Irmak, S., & Kuruüzüm, A. (2009). Turkish validity examination of the multidimensional students’ life satisfaction scale. Social Indicators Research, 92(1), 13-23. doı:10.1007/s11205-008-9284-x
  • James, M. S. L. (2005). Antecedents and consequences of cynicism in organizations: An examination of the potential positive and negative effects on school systems. (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation). The Florida State University, Florida.
  • Johnson, J. L., & O’Leary-Kelly, A. M. (2003). The effects of psychological contract breach and organizational cynicism: Not all social exchange violations are created equal. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24(5), 627-647
  • Jovanovic, V., & Zuljevic, D. (2013). Psychometric evaluation of the Serbian version of the multidimensional students’ life satisfaction scale, Social Indicators Research, 110 (1), 55–69 DOI: 10.1007/s11205-011-9916-4.
  • Kalağan, G., & Güzeller, C. O. (2010). Öğretmenlerin örgütsel sinizm düzeylerinin incelenmesi [The Organizational cynicism levels of the teachers]. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 27, 83-97.
  • Kanter, D. L., & Mirvis, P. H. (1989). The cynical Americans: Living and working in an age of discontent and disillusion. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Kapıkıran Ş., & Yağcı U. (2012). Loneliness and life satisfaction of adolescents: the mediator and moderator role of playing musical ınstruments and joining a band, Elementary Education Online, 11(3), 738-747.
  • Karababa, A. (2018). The relationship between adaptive-maladaptive perfectionism and life satisfaction among secondary school students. Research on Education and Psychology (REP), 2(2), 166-175.
  • Kasalak, G. & Özcan, M. (2018). Student cynicism: A study of adaptation, validity and reliability of cynical attitudes toward college scale, Journal of Higher Education and Science, 8(1), 127-135. doi: 10.5961/jhes.2018.255
  • Kline, T.J.B. (2005). Psychological testing: A practical approach to design and evaluation. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.
  • Koçak, R. & İçmenoğlu E. (2012), Emotional ıntelligence and creativity as predictors of life satisfaction among gifted students. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 4(37), 73-85.
  • Kopelman, L. (1983). Cynicism among medical students. Jama, 250(15), 2006-2010. doi:10.1001/jama.1983.03340150048025
  • Lai, J. H.-W., Bond, M. H., & Hui, N. H.-H. (2007). The role of social axioms in predicting life satisfaction: A longitudinal study in Hong Kong. Journal of Happiness Studies: An Interdisciplinary Forum on Subjective Well-Being, 8(4), 517-535. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10902-006-9029-y.
  • Lambert, S. J. (1991). The combined effects of job and family characteristics on the job satisfaction, job involvement, and intrinsic motivation of men and women workers. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 12(4), 341-363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030120408
  • Li, F., Zhou, F., & Leung, K. (2011). Expecting the worst: Moderating effects of social cynicism on the relationships between relationship conflict and negative affective reactions. Journal of Business and Psychology, 26(3), 339-345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10869-010-9192-3
  • Long, S. (1977). Academic disaffection and the university student. Educational Studies, 3(1), 67-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305569770030106.
  • Mehdinezhad, V. (2015). Students’ satısfactıon wıth lıfe and ıts relatıon to school burnout. Bulgarian Journal of Science and Education Policy (BJSEP), 9(2), 254-265.
  • Meulemann, H. (2001). Life satisfaction from late adolescence to mid-life: The impact of life success and success evaluation on the life satisfaction of former gymnasium students between the ages 30 and 43. Journal of Happiness Studies: An Interdisciplinary Forum on Subjective Well-Being, 2(4), 445-465. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1013990011655.
  • Moore, P. M., Huebner, E. S., & Hills, K. J. (2012). Electronic bullying and victimization and life satisfaction in middle school students. Social Indicators Research, 107(3), 429-447.
  • Morris, R. T., & Sherlock, B. J. (1971). Decline of ethics and the rise of cynicism in dental school. Journal of health and social behavior, 12(4), 290-299.
  • Neto, F. (2006). Dimensions and correlates of social axioms among a Portuguese sample. Individual Differences Research, 4(5), 340-351.
  • O’Hair, D., & Cody, M. J. (1987). Machiavellian beliefs and social influence. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 51(3), 279-303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10570318709374272
  • Okkassov, G. (2018). Okul tükenmişliği ile algılanan sosyal destek ve yaşam doyumu arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi [Analysis of the relationship between perceived social support and life satisfaction with school burnout]. (Unpublished Master Thesis). Atatürk University Graduate School of Education Sciences, Erzurum.
  • Özdemir, M. (2012). Examination of high school students’ metaphorical school perceptions in terms of various variables, Eğitim ve Bilim, 37(163), 96-169.
  • Özdemir S., & Akkaya E. (2013). Genel lise öğrenci ve öğretmenlerinin okul ve ideal okul algılarının metafor yoluyla analizi [The analysis of secondary school students’ and teachers’ mental images of school and ideal school by using metaphor]. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Yönetimi, 19(2), 295-322.
  • Öztan, S. (2014). Ortaokul 6.7.8. sınıf öğrencilerinin okul tükenmişliklerinin yaşam doyumları ve benlik kurgusu algıları açısından incelenmesi [The analysis of the effect of the sixth, seventh and eighth grade secondary school students life satisfaction and the perception of self- construal on the school burnout]. (Unpublished Master Thesis). İstanbul Arel University Graduate School of Social Sciences, İstanbul.
  • Özyürek, R. & Atıcı, M. K. (2002). Üniversite öğrencilerinin meslek seçimi kararlarında kendilerine yardım eden kaynakların belirlenmesi [Recruitment of resources to assist them in university career decisions]. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 2(17), 33-42.
  • Qian, Y., & Daniels, T. D. (2008). A communication model of employee cynicism toward organizational change. Corporate Communication: An International Journal, 13(3), 319-332.
  • Parker, C. P., Dipboye, R. L., & Jackson, S. L. (1995). Perceptions of organizational politics: An investigation of antecedents and consequences. Journal of Management, 21(5), 891-912. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014920639502100505
  • Pociūtė, B., & Pečiūra, Ž. (2014). Studentų akademinio cinizmo raiškos studijose sąsajos su akademiniu perdegimu ir įsipareigojimu profesijai [Students’ cynical attitude towards studyıng and ıts relatıonshıp wıth career commitment and academic burnout]. Acta Paedagogica Vilnensia, 32, 99-115. https://doi.org/10.15388/ActPaed.2014.32.7391
  • Pitre, L. J. (2004). Organizational cynicism at the united states naval academy: an exploratory study. Unpublished Master Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, California, USA Saban, A. (2008). Okula ilişkin metaforlar [Metaphors about school]. Educational Administration: Theory and Practice, 14(3), 459-496.
  • Salmela-Aro, K., Savolainen, H., & Holopainen, L. (2009). Depressive symptoms and school burnout during adolescence: Evidence from two cross-lagged longitudinal studies. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(10),1316–1327. doi: 10.1007/s10964-008-9334-3.
  • Salmela-Aro, K., & Tynkkynen, L. (2012). Gendered pathways in school burnout among adolescents. Journal of adolescence, 35(4), 929-939. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2012.01.001
  • Santos, B. R., Sarriera, J. C., & Bedin, L. M. (2019). Subjective well-being, life satisfaction and interpersonal relationships associated to socio-demographic and contextual variables. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 14(3), 819-835.
  • Schyns, P., Nuus, M., & Dekker, H. (2004). A conceptual and empirical evaluation of political cynicism. Paper prepared for presentation at the ‘politicologenetmaal’, Antwerp, Belgium (May 27-28, 2004). Retrieved from http://www.politologischinstituut.be/ PE2004/documents/11SchynsNuusDekker.pdf
  • Seligson, J. L., Huebner, E. S., & Valois, R. F. (2005). An investigation of a brief life satisfaction scale with elementary school children. Social Indicators Research, 73(3), 355-374. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11205-004-2011-3.
  • Singelis, T. M., Hubbard, C., Her, P., & An, S. (2003). Convergent validation of the Social Axioms Survey. Personality and Individual Differences, 34(2), 269-282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00043-0
  • Stanley, D. J. (1998). Employee cynicism about organizational change: Development and validation of a measure, Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Western Ontario, Ontario.
  • State, T. M., & Kern, L. (2017). Life satisfaction among high school students with social, emotional, and behavioral problems. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 19(4), 205–215. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300717714573.
  • Tinto, V. (1993). Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
  • Tuominen-Soini, H., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2014). Schoolwork engagement and burnout among Finnish high school students and young adults: Profiles, progressions, and educational outcomes. Developmental psychology, 50(3), 649-662. doi: 10.1037/a0033898.
  • Ulaş, S. E. (2002). Felsefe sözlüğü [Dictionary of philosophy]. Ankara: Bilim and Sanat Publishing.
  • Xie , Q. , Chen , X. P. , Zhang , J. F. , & Hong , X. L. (2011 ). Relationship between college students’ cynicism and satisfaction with life: the moderating effects of social support. Psychological Development and Education, 2, 181 - 187 .
  • Vurucu, F. (2010). Meslek lisesi öğrencilerinin meslek seçimi yeterliliği ve meslek seçimini etkileyen faktörler [Occupational choice capability of students in vocational schools and factors affecting their occupational choice]. (Unpublished Master Thesis), Yeditepe University Graduate School of Social Sciences, İstanbul.
  • Wanous, J. P., Reichers, A. E., & Austin, J. T. (1994). Organizational cynicism: An initial study. Academy of Management Best Papers Proceedings, 269–273.
  • Wei, X., Wang, R., & Macdonald, E. (2015). Exploring the relations between student cynicism and student burnout. Psychological Reports, 117(1), 103-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/14.11.PR0.117c14z6
  • Yıldırım, S.Y. & Önder, F.C. (2018). Emotional intelligence and parental attitudes as predictors of high school students’ life satisfaction. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 10(1), 88 – 104.
  • Zappulla, C., Pace, U., Lo Cascio, V. et al. (2014). Factor structure and convergent validity of the long and abbreviated versions of the multidimensional students’ life satisfaction scale in an Italian sample, Social Indicators Research, 18(1), 57-69. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-013-0418-4
  • Zuffo, R. G., Maiolo, M. E., & Cortin, M. (2013). Student cynicism: An Initial Italian validation of C. A. T. C. S. (Cynical attitudes toward college scale). Procedia-Social and Behavioral Science, 84, 283 – 287.
Primary Language en
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-5084-0054
Author: Gamze Kasalak (Primary Author)
Institution: AKDENİZ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date : December 13, 2019

Bibtex @research article { ijcer586635, journal = {International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research}, issn = {}, eissn = {2148-3868}, address = {}, publisher = {Mustafa AYDIN}, year = {2019}, volume = {6}, pages = {325 - 337}, doi = {10.33200/ijcer.586635}, title = {The Relations between Student Cynicism and Students’ Life Satisfaction}, key = {cite}, author = {Kasalak, Gamze} }
APA Kasalak, G . (2019). The Relations between Student Cynicism and Students’ Life Satisfaction. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research , 6 (2) , 325-337 . DOI: 10.33200/ijcer.586635
MLA Kasalak, G . "The Relations between Student Cynicism and Students’ Life Satisfaction". International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research 6 (2019 ): 325-337 <http://ijcer.net/en/issue/50452/586635>
Chicago Kasalak, G . "The Relations between Student Cynicism and Students’ Life Satisfaction". International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research 6 (2019 ): 325-337
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The Relations between Student Cynicism and Students’ Life Satisfaction AU - Gamze Kasalak Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.33200/ijcer.586635 DO - 10.33200/ijcer.586635 T2 - International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 325 EP - 337 VL - 6 IS - 2 SN - -2148-3868 M3 - doi: 10.33200/ijcer.586635 UR - https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.586635 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research The Relations between Student Cynicism and Students’ Life Satisfaction %A Gamze Kasalak %T The Relations between Student Cynicism and Students’ Life Satisfaction %D 2019 %J International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research %P -2148-3868 %V 6 %N 2 %R doi: 10.33200/ijcer.586635 %U 10.33200/ijcer.586635
ISNAD Kasalak, Gamze . "The Relations between Student Cynicism and Students’ Life Satisfaction". International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research 6 / 2 (December 2019): 325-337 . https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.586635
AMA Kasalak G . The Relations between Student Cynicism and Students’ Life Satisfaction. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research. 2019; 6(2): 325-337.
Vancouver Kasalak G . The Relations between Student Cynicism and Students’ Life Satisfaction. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research. 2019; 6(2): 337-325.