Year 2019, Volume 6 , Issue 2, Pages 426 - 437 2019-12-13

Reactions Victims Display Against Cyberbullying: A Cross-cultural Comparison

Bahadır ERİŞTİ [1]


This research aims to examine behavioral reactions that victims display against cyberbullying through a cross-cultural comparison standpoint. The research data have been collected from 161 participants from different countries such as Turkey, Azerbaijan, and Syria; and all of them continue their undergraduate studies in Turkey. Some of the noteworthy findings are as follows: revenge behaviors adopted by victims of cyber-bullying differ at a statistically significant level across the gender variable. On the other hand, reactions such as precautions, dialogue, and avoidance do not vary significantly across genders. Comparisons among nationalities indicate that seeking vengeance from the bully, looking for ways to build dialogue with the bully, and avoiding behaviors employed by victims from different cultures also differ at a statistically significant level. However, one reaction, precautions, does not bear a statistically significant variance value across different nationalities. Based on the findings of the current study, strategies to overcome cyber aggression can be associated with cultural aspects.


Cyber Victimization, Cyber Victims’ Reactions, Cross Cultural Reacting Behaviors to Cyberbullying, Cyberbullying, Internet Usage
  • Aase, T. (2017). Tournaments of power: Honor and revenge in the contemporary world. London: Routledge.
  • Agatston, P.W., Kowalski R., & Limber, S. (2007). Students’ perspectives on cyberbullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, (41), 59-60.
  • Akbulut, Y., Sahin, Y.L., & Eristi, B. (2010). Cyberbullying victimization among Turkish online social utility members. Educational Technology & Society (13), 192–201.
  • Akbulut, Y. & Eristi, B. (2011). Cyberbullying and victimization among Turkish university students. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, (27), 1155-1170.
  • Archer, J. & Coyne, S.M. (2005). An integrated review of indirect, relational, and social aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Review (9), 212-230.
  • Baek, J. & Bullock, L.M. (2014). Cyberbullying: a cross-cultural perspective. Journal Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, (19), 226–238.
  • Barkow, J.H., Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (1992). The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Barlett, C. & Coyne, S.M. (2014). A meta-analysis of sex differences in cyber-bullying behavior: The moderating role of age. Aggressive Behavior, (40), 474-488.
  • Barlett, C.P., et al. (2014). Cross-cultural differences in cyberbullying behavior: A short-term longitudinal study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, (45), 300-313.
  • Bauman, S., Toomey, R.B., & Walker, J.L. (2013). Associations among bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide in high school students. Journal of Adolescence, (36), 341–350.
  • Benavidez, T.M. (2016). The bond that breaks: Closeness and honor predict morality-related aggression. Evolutionary Psychological Science, (2),140–148.
  • Beran, T. & Li, Q. (2005). Cyber-harassment: A study of a new method for an old behavior. Journal of Educational Computing Research, (32), 265-277.
  • Beran, T.N., et al. (2012). Evidence for the need to support adolescents dealing with harassment and cyber-harassment: Prevalence, progression, and impact. School Psychology International, (33), 562-576.
  • Bergeron, N. & Schneider, B.H. (2005). Explaining cross-national differences in peer-directed aggression: A quantitative synthesis. Aggressive Behaviour 31:116-137
  • Betts, L.C., et al. (2017). Examining the roles young people fulfill in five types of cyber bullying. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 34:1080-1098.
  • Brewer, G. & Kerslake, J. (2015). Cyberbullying, self-esteem, empathy and loneliness. Computers in Human Behavior 48:255–260.
  • Camodeca, M. & Goossens, F.A. (2005). Children’s opinions on effective strategies to cope with bullying: The importance of bullying role and perspective. Educational Research 47:93-105.
  • Cao, B. & Lin, W.Y. (2015). How do victims react to cyberbullying on social networking sites? The influence of previous cyberbullying victimization experiences. Computers in Human Behavior 52:458-465.
  • Caputo, A. (2014). Psychological Correlates of School Bullying Victimization: Academic Self-Concept, Learning Motivation and Test Anxiety Correlaciones. International Journal of Educational Psychology 3:69-99.
  • Cenat, J.M., et al. (2014). Cyberbullying, psychological distress and self-esteem among youth in Quebec schools. Journal of Affective Disorders 169:7-9.
  • Cerna, A., Machackova, H., & Dedkova, L. (2016). Whom to trust: The role of mediation and perceived harm in support seeking by cyberbullying victims. Children and Society 4:265–277.
  • Chisholm, J. (2014). Review of the Status of Cyberbullying and Cyberbullying Prevention. Journal of Information Systems Education 25:77–88.
  • Cohen, D., et al. (1996). Insult, aggression, and the southern culture of honor: an "experimental ethnography". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 70:945-59.
  • Cowie, H. (2009). Tackling cyberbullying: A cross-cultural comparison. The International Journal of Emotional Education 1:3-13.
  • Cowie, H. (2013). Cyberbullying and its impact on young people’s emotional health and well-being. The Psychiatrist 37:167-170.
  • Davidson, R.J., Jackson, D.C., & Kalin, N.H. (2000). Emotion, plasticity, context, and regulation: Perspectives from affective neuroscience. Psychological Bulletin 126:890-909.
  • Davidson, R.J., Putnam, K.M., & Larson, C.L. (2000). Dysfunction in the neural circuitry of emotion regulation. A possible prelude to violence. Science 289:591-594.
  • Dooley, J.J., Shaw, T.M., & Cross, D.S. (2012). The association between the mental health and behavioural problems of students and their reactions to cyber-victimization. European Journal of Developmental Psychology 9:275-289.
  • Downey, G. (2004). Rejection sensitivity and girls’ aggression. In: Marlene M, Moretti CL, Odgers MA, Margaret AJ (eds) Girls and Aggression. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp. 7-25.
  • Elgin, V.M. (2016). Examining honor culture in Turkey: Honor, manhood, & man-to-man response to insult. PhD Thesis, Middle East Technical University, Turkey.
  • Elledge, C.L. (2013). Individual and contextual predictors of cyberbullying: The influence of children’s provictim attitudes and teachers’ ability to intervene. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 42:698-710.
  • Eristi, B. & Akbulut, Y. (2017). Exploration of the nature and predictors of student responses to cyberbullying. In: Proceedings presented at the Proceedings of the 2017 AECT International Convention Florida, USA, 07-11 November 2017.
  • Espelage, D.L., Bosworth, K., & Simon, T.R. (2000). Examining the social context of bullying behaviors in early adolescence. Journal of Counseling & Development 78:326-333.
  • Ferreira, P.C., et al. (2016). Student by stander behavior and cultural issues in cyberbullying: When actions speak louder than words. Computers in Human Behavior 60:301-311.
  • Gibson, K.R. (2002). Evolution of human intelligence: The roles of brain size and mental construction. Brain Behavior and Evolution 59:10-20.
  • Gollwitzer, M. & Denzler, M. (2009). What makes revenge so sweet: Seeing the offender suffer or delivering a message? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 45:840-844.
  • Gollwitzer, M., Meder, M., Schmitt, M. (2011). What gives victims satisfaction when they seek revenge? European Journal of Social Psychology 41:364-374.
  • Hammer, M.R. (2005). The Intercultural Conflict Style Inventory: A conceptual framework and measure of intercultural conflict resolution approaches. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 29:675-695.
  • Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J.W. (2009). Bullying Beyond the Schoolyard: Preventing and Responding to Cyberbullying. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J.W. (2011). Cyberbullying: A review of the legal issues facing educators. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth 55:71-78.
  • Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J.W. (2013). Social influences on cyberbullying behaviors among middle and high school students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 42:711–722.
  • Hook, J.N., Worthington, E.L., & Utsey, S.O. (2009). Collectivism, forgiveness, and social harmony. The Counseling Psychologist 37:821-847.
  • Ijzerman, H., Van Dijk, W.W., & Gallucci, M. (2007). A Bumpy train ride: A field experiment on ınsult, honor, and emotional reactions. Emotion 7:869–875.
  • Isen, A.M. (2003). Positive affect as a source of human strength. In: Aspinwall LG, Ursula MS (eds) A psychology of human strengths: Fundamental questions and future directions for a positive psychology, pp. 179-195.
  • Juvonen, J. & Graham, S. (2001). Peer harassment in school: The plight of the vulnerable and victimized. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Kim, Y.H., Cohen, D., & Au, W.T. (2010). The jury and abjury of my peers: The self in face and dignity cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 98:904-916.
  • King, J., Walpole, C., & Lamon, K. (2007). Surf and turf wars online: Growing implications of internet gang violence. Journal of Adolescent Health 41:66-8.
  • Kowalski, R.M., Limber, S.P., & Agatson, P.W. (2012). Cyberbullying: Bullying in the digital age. (2nd ed.). N.J.: John Wiley-Blackwell.
  • König, A., Gollwitzer, M., & Steffgen, G. (2010). Cyberbullying as an act of revenge? Journal of Psychologists and Counsellors in Schools 20:210-224.
  • Larrañaga, E., Yubero, S., & Ovejero, A. (2016). Gender variables and cyberbullying in college students. In: Navarro, R., Yubero, S., Larrañaga E., eds. Cyberbullying Across the Globe. Cham: Springer, pp. 63-77.
  • Lennon, R.E. (2013). A meta-analysis of cultural differences in revenge and forgiveness. Master Thesis. University of North Florida College of Arts and Sciences, USA.
  • Leung, A.K.Y. & Cohen, D. (2011). Within-and between-culture variation: Individual differences and the cultural logics of honor, face, and dignity cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 100:507–526.
  • Li, Q. (2008). A cross-cultural comparison of adolescents' experience related to cyberbullying. Educational Research 50:223-234.
  • Machackova H, et al. (2013). Effectiveness of coping strategies for victims of cyberbullying. Cyberpsychology. Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace 7:5
  • Machmutow, K., et al. (2012). Peer victimisation and depressive symptoms: can specific coping strategies buffer the negative impact of cybervictimisation? Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties 17:403-420.
  • Mishna, F., Saini, M., & Solomon, S. (2009). Ongoing and online: Children and youth's perceptions of cyber bullying. Children and Youth Services Review 31:1222-1228.
  • Mishna, F., et al., 2010. Cyber bullying behaviors among middle and high school students. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 80:362–374.
  • Morita, Y. (2001). Facts about victims of bullying. In Morita Y (eds) Cross-national study of bullying. Tokyo: Kaneko shobou, pp. 31-54.
  • Na, H., Dancy, B.L., & Park, C. (2015). College student engaging in cyberbullying victimization: Cognitive appraisals, coping strategies, and psychological adjustments. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing 29:155-161.
  • Nixon, C.L. (2014). Current perspectives: The impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health. Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics 5:143–158.
  • Ojala, K. & Nesdale, D. (2004). Bullying and social identity: The effects of group norms and distinctiveness threat on attitudes towards bullying. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 22:19-35.
  • Olenik-Shemesh, D., Heiman, T., & Eden, S. (2012). Cyberbullying victimisation in adolescence: relationships with loneliness and depressive mood. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties 17:361–374.
  • Öner-Özkan, B. & Gençöz, T. (2006). Gurur toplumu bakış açısıyla Türk kültürünün incelenmesinin önemi. Kriz Dergisi 14:19-25.
  • Paquette, J.A. & Underwood, M.K. (1999). Gender differences in young adolescents' experiences of peer victimization: Social and physical aggression. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 45:242-266.
  • Parris, L., et al. (2011). High school students’ perceptions of coping with cyberbullying. Youth & Society 44:284-306.
  • Patchin, J.W. & Hinduja, S. (2010). Cyberbullying and self-esteem. Journal of School Health 80:616-623.
  • Peebles, E. (2014). Cyberbullying: Hiding behind the screen. Paediatrics Child Health 19:527–528.
  • Perry, D.G., Hodges, E.E., & Egan, S.K. (2001). Determinants of chronic victimization by peers: A review and a new model of family influence. In: Juvonen J, Graham S (eds) Peer Harassment in School: The Plight of the Vulnerable and Victimized. New York: The Guilford Press.
  • Peterson, B. (2004). Cultural Intelligence: A Guide to Working with People from Other Cultures. Boston: Intercultural Press.
  • Pronk, R.E. & Zimmer-Gembeck, M.J. (2010). It’s “mean,” but what does it mean to adolescents? Relational aggression described by victims, aggressors, and their peers. Journal of Adolescent Research 25:175-204.
  • Reporters without Borders. (2017). World freedom of information index. Available from https://rsf.org/en/ranking (accessed January 12, 2018).
  • Rodriguez Mosquera, P.M., Manstead, A.S.R., & Fischer, A.H. (2000). The role of honor-related values in the elicitation, experience, and communication of pride, shame, and anger: Spain and the Netherlands compared. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 26:833–844.
  • Rodriguez Mosquera, P.M., Uskul, A.K., & Cross, S.E. (2011). Special issue introduction: The centrality of social image in social psychology. European Journal of Social Psychology 41:403-410.
  • Safaria, T., Tentama, F., & Suyono, H. (2016). Cyberbully, cybervictim, and forgiveness among Indonesian high school students. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology 15:40-48.
  • Sarı, S.V., & Camadan, F. (2016). The new face of violence tendency: Cyber bullying perpetrators and their victims. Computers in Human Behavior 59:317-326.
  • Scheithauera, H., Smithband, P.K., & Samara, M. (2016). Cultural issues in bullying and cyberbullying among children and adolescents: Methodological approaches for comparative research. International Journal of Developmental Science 10:3-8.
  • Schenk, A.M., & Fremouw, W.J. (2012). Prevalence, psychological impact, and coping of cyberbully victims among college students. Journal of School Violence 11:21-37.
  • Schultze-Krumbholz, A., et al. (2016). Feeling cybervictims’ pain. The effect of empathy training on cyberbullying. Aggressive Behavior 42:147–156.
  • Seals, D., & Young, J. (2003). Bullying and victimization: Prevalence and relationship to gender, grade level, ethnicity, self-esteem, and depression. Adolescence 152: 735-47.
  • Slonje, R., Smith, P.K., & Frisén, A. (2012). Processes of cyberbullying, and feelings of remorse by bullies: a pilot study. European Journal of Developmental Psychology 9:244-259.
  • Slonje, R., Smith, P.K., & Frisen, A. (2013). The nature of cyberbullying, and strategies for prevention. Computers in Human Behavior 29:26-32.
  • Smith, P.K., et al. (2008). Cyberbullying: Its nature and impact in secondary school pupils. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 49:376–385.
  • Smith, P.K. & Frisén, A. (2012). The nature of cyberbullying, and strategies for prevention. Computers in Human Behavior 29:26-32.
  • Sourander, A., et al. (2010). Psychosocial risk factors associated with cyberbullying among adolescents: a population-based study. Archives of General Psychiatry 67:720-728.
  • Sticca, F., et al. (2015). The coping with cyberbullying questionnaire: Development of a new measure. Societies 5:515-536
  • Tabachnick, B.G. & Fidell, L.S. (2013). Using Multivariate Statistics Using Multivariate Statistics (6 ed.). Boston: Pearson.
  • Tenenbaum, L.S., et al. (2011). Coping strategies and perceived effectiveness in fourth through eighth grade victims of bullying. School Psychology International 32:263-287.
  • Theron, W.H., et al. (2001). Direct and indirect aggression in women: A comparison between South African and Spanish university students. In: Ramirez, J.M., Richardson, D.R., eds. Cross-cultural Approaches to Aggression and Reconciliation. Huntington: NovaScience, pp. 99-109.
  • Transparency International. (2008). Corruption perceptions index [online]. Available from: http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi/2008 (accessed January 12, 2018).
  • Triandis, H.C. (1994). Culture and Social Behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Uskul, A.K., Oyserman, D., & Schwarz, N. (2010). Cultural emphasis on honor, modesty or selfenhancement: Implications for the survey response process. In: Harkness, J.A., Braun, M., Edwards, B., et al., eds. Survey Methods in Multinational, Multiregional, and Multicultural Contexts. NY: Wiley.
  • Völlink T., et al. (2013). Coping with cyberbullying: Differences between victims, bully-victims and children not involved in bullying. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology 23:7-24.
  • Wong, R.Y.M., Cheung, C.M.K., & Xiao, B. (2018). Does gender matter in cyberbullying perpetration? An empirical investigation. Computers in Human Behavior 79:247-25.
  • Wright, M.F. (2017). Parental mediation, cyberbullying, and cybertrolling: The role of gender. Computers in Human Behavior 71:189-195.
  • Yoshimura, S. (2007). Goals and emotional outcomes of revenge activities in interpersonal relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 24:87-98.
Primary Language en
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-4092-3964
Author: Bahadır ERİŞTİ
Institution: ANADOLU UNIVERSITY
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date : December 13, 2019

Bibtex @research article { ijcer624623, journal = {International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research}, issn = {}, eissn = {2148-3868}, address = {}, publisher = {Mustafa AYDIN}, year = {2019}, volume = {6}, pages = {426 - 437}, doi = {10.33200/ijcer.624623}, title = {Reactions Victims Display Against Cyberbullying: A Cross-cultural Comparison}, key = {cite}, author = {ERİŞTİ, Bahadır} }
APA ERİŞTİ, B . (2019). Reactions Victims Display Against Cyberbullying: A Cross-cultural Comparison. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research , 6 (2) , 426-437 . DOI: 10.33200/ijcer.624623
MLA ERİŞTİ, B . "Reactions Victims Display Against Cyberbullying: A Cross-cultural Comparison". International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research 6 (2019 ): 426-437 <http://ijcer.net/en/issue/50452/624623>
Chicago ERİŞTİ, B . "Reactions Victims Display Against Cyberbullying: A Cross-cultural Comparison". International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research 6 (2019 ): 426-437
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Reactions Victims Display Against Cyberbullying: A Cross-cultural Comparison AU - Bahadır ERİŞTİ Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.33200/ijcer.624623 DO - 10.33200/ijcer.624623 T2 - International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 426 EP - 437 VL - 6 IS - 2 SN - -2148-3868 M3 - doi: 10.33200/ijcer.624623 UR - https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.624623 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research Reactions Victims Display Against Cyberbullying: A Cross-cultural Comparison %A Bahadır ERİŞTİ %T Reactions Victims Display Against Cyberbullying: A Cross-cultural Comparison %D 2019 %J International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research %P -2148-3868 %V 6 %N 2 %R doi: 10.33200/ijcer.624623 %U 10.33200/ijcer.624623
ISNAD ERİŞTİ, Bahadır . "Reactions Victims Display Against Cyberbullying: A Cross-cultural Comparison". International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research 6 / 2 (December 2019): 426-437 . https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.624623
AMA ERİŞTİ B . Reactions Victims Display Against Cyberbullying: A Cross-cultural Comparison. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research. 2019; 6(2): 426-437.
Vancouver ERİŞTİ B . Reactions Victims Display Against Cyberbullying: A Cross-cultural Comparison. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research. 2019; 6(2): 437-426.