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Year 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, 307 - 334, 30.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.768768

Abstract

References

  • Ahmed, A. H. (2010). Students’ problems with cohesion and coherence in EFL essay writing in Egypt: Different perspectives. Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal (LICEJ), 1(4), 211-221.
  • Akyel, A., & Kamisli, S. (1996). Composing in First and Second Languages: Possible Effects of EFL Writing Instruction. Paper presented at the Balkan Conference on English Language Teaching of the International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (2nd, Istanbul, Turkey, September 5-7, 1996). Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED401719.pdf
  • Alagozlu, N. (2007). Critical thinking and voice in EFL writing. Asian EFL journal, 9(3), 118-136.
  • Alharbi, M. A. (2019). Saudi Arabia EFL university students’ voice on challenges and solution in learning academic writing. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 8(3), 576-587.
  • Al Seyabi, F., & Tuzlukova, V. (2014). Writing problems and strategies: An investigative study in the Omani school and university context. Asian Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 3(4), 37-48.
  • Al-Zankawi, M. (2018). An Investigation of EFL Writing Strategies and Cohesion of Kuwaiti Undergraduate Students. Doctoral dissertation, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
  • Arslan, R. Ş., & Şahin-Kızıl, A. (2010). How can the use of blog software facilitate the writing process of English language learners?. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 23(3), 183-197.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2019). What can L2 writers’ pausing behaviour tell us about their L2 writing processes. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 41(3), 529-554.
  • Bennui, P. (2016). A study of L1 intereference in the writing of Thai EFL students. Malaysian Journal of ELT Research, 4(1), 72-102
  • Bozkurt, A., Aydin, B., Taskiran, A., & Koral, E. (2016). Improving creating writing skills of EFL learners through microblogging, The Online Journal of New Horizons in Education, 6(3), 88-98.
  • Brockman, E., & Taylor, M. (2016). Four College-Level Writing Assignments: Text Complexity, Close Reading, and the Five-Paragraph Essay. Teaching/Writing: The Journal of Writing Teacher Education, 5(1), 10.
  • Buyukyavuz, O., & Cakir, I. (2014). Uncovering the Motivating Factors Behind Writing in English in an EFL Context. Anthropologist, 18(1), 153-163.
  • Chen, Y. M. (2002). The problems of university EFL writing in Taiwan. The Korea TESOL Journal, 5(1), 59-79.
  • Choi, Y. H. (2016). Writing strategies in the process of L2 computer-mode academic writing with the use of multiple resources. English Teaching, 71(3), 3-28.
  • Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (2nd ed.). Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Cumming, A. (2001a). ESL/EFL instructors' practices for writing assessment: specific purposes or general purposes?. Language Testing, 18(2), 207-224.
  • Cumming, A. (2001b). Learning to write in a second language: Two decades of research. International journal of English studies, 1(2), 1-23.
  • Derakhshan, A., & Karimian Shirejini, R. (2020). An Investigation of the Iranian EFL Learners’ Perceptions Towards the Most Common Writing Problems. SAGE Open, 10(2), 2158244020919523.
  • Dogancay-Aktuna, S. (1998). The spread of English in Turkey and its current sociolinguistic profile. Journal of multilingual and multicultural Development, 19(1), 24-39. Emmons, R. H. (2003). An Effective Writing Formula for Unsure Writers. http://www.airpower.au.af.Mil/airchronicles/aureview/1975/sept.oct/emmons.html
  • Erkan, Y. D., & Saban, A. I. (2011). Writing performance relative to writing apprehension, self-efficacy in writing, and attitudes towards writing: A correlational study in Turkish tertiary-level EFL. The Asian EFL Journal Quarterly, 13(1), 163-191.
  • Erikson, E. H. (1956). The problem of ego identity. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 4(1), 56-121.
  • Ezza, E. S. (2010). Arab EFL learners’ writing dilemma at tertiary level. English Language Teaching, 3(4), 33-39
  • Ferris, D., & Hedgcock, J. S. (2005). Teacher response to student writing: Issues in oral and written feedback. Teaching ESL composition: Purpose, process and practice, 184-222.
  • Flavell, J. H. (1963). The university series in psychology. The developmental psychology of Jean Piaget. D Van Nostrand. New York
  • Flower, L., & Hayes, J. R. (1981). A cognitive process theory of writing. College composition and communication, 32(4), 365-387.
  • Ginzberg, E. (1972). Toward a theory of occupational choice: A restatement. Vocational guidance quarterly, 20(3), 2-9.
  • Glaser, B., & Strauss, A. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory. Weidenfield & Nicolson. London
  • Grabe, W. (2001). Notes toward a theory of second language writing. On second language writing, 39-57.
  • Guba, E.G. (1981). Criteria for assessing the trustworthiness of naturalistic inquiries, Educational Communication and Technology, 29(2), 75-91.
  • Güngör, F., & Uysal, H. H. (2020). Lexical bundle use and crosslinguistic influence in academic texts. Lingua, 242, 102859.
  • Hammad E.A. (2016) Palestinian University Students’ Problems with EFL Essay Writing in an Instructional Setting. In: Ahmed A., Abouabdelkader H. (Eds), Teaching EFL Writing in the 21st Century Arab World. Palgrave Macmillan, London.
  • Hasan, M. K., & Akhand, M. M. (2010). Approaches to writing in EFL/ESL context: Balancing product and process in writing class at tertiary level. Journal of NELTA, 15(1-2), 77-88.
  • Havighurst, R.J. (1972). Developmental tasks and education. New York: David McKay.
  • Hidayati, K. H. (2018). Teaching writing to EFL learners: An investigation of challenges confronted by Indonesian teachers. Langkawi: Journal of The Association for Arabic and English, 4(1), 21-31.
  • Hyland, K. (2019). Second language writing. Cambridge university press.
  • Hyland, K., & Hyland, F. (Eds.). (2019). Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues. Cambridge university press.
  • İnceçay, G. (2012). Turkey’s foreign language policy at primary level: Challenges in practice. ELT research journal, 1(1), 53-62.
  • Kaplan, R. B. (1966). Cultural thought patterns in inter‐cultural education. Language learning, 16(1‐2), 1-20.
  • Kirkgoz, Y. (2007). English language teaching in Turkey: Policy changes and their implementations. RELC journal, 38(2), 216-228.
  • Kırmızı, Ö., & Kırmızı, G. D. (2015). An investigation of L2 learners’ writing self-efficacy, writing anxiety and its causes at higher education in Turkey. International Journal of Higher Education, 4(2), p57.
  • Lee, I. (2007). Assessment for learning: Integrating assessment, teaching, and learning in the ESL/EFL writing classroom. Canadian modern language review, 64(1), 199-213.
  • Leki, I. (2001). Material, educational, and ideological challenges of teaching EFL writing at the turn of the century. International Journal of English Studies, 1(2), 197-209.
  • Leki, I. (2017). Undergraduates in a second language: Challenges and complexities of academic literacy development. Routledge.
  • Li, M. (2018). Computer-mediated collaborative writing in L2 contexts: An analysis of empirical research. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 31(8), 882-904.
  • Majchrzak, O. (2018). Learner identity and learner beliefs in EFL writing. New York, NY: Springer.
  • McMullen, M. G. (2009). Using language learning strategies to improve the writing skills of Saudi EFL students: Will it really work? System, 37(3), 418-433.
  • Mermelstein, A. D. (2015). Improving EFL learners' writing through enhanced extensive reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 27(2), 182.
  • Mıstık, S. (1994). The effect of peer feedback on the development of Turkish EFL students' writing proficiency. Doctoral dissertation, Bilkent University, Turkey
  • Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. Sage.
  • Miller, P. H. (2002). Theories of developmental psychology. Macmillan.
  • Moon, J. (2008). L2 children and writing: a neglected skill?. ELT journal, 62(4), 398-400.
  • Muslim, I. M. (2014). Helping EFL students improve their writing. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 4(2), 105-112.
  • Nunan, D. (1999). Second language teaching and learning. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
  • Ostler, S. E. (1987). A Study of the Contrastive Rhetoric of Arabic, English, Japanese, and Spanish: By Shirley Elaine Ostler. Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California, The USA
  • Ozsevik, Z. (2010). The use of communicative language teaching (CLT): Turkish EFL teachers' perceived difficulties in implementing CLT in Turkey. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Illinois, The USA
  • Öztürk, H., & Çeçen, S. (2007). The effects of portfolio keeping on writing anxiety of EFL students. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 3(2).
  • Pajares, F. (2003). Self-efficacy beliefs, motivation, and achievement in writing: A review of the literature. Reading &Writing Quarterly, 19(2), 139-158.
  • Perl, S. (1980). Understanding composing. College composition and communication, 31(4), 363-369.
  • Piaget, J. (1964). Part I: Cognitive development in children: Piaget development and learning. Journal of research in science teaching, 2(3), 176-186.
  • Phuket, P. R. N., & Othman, N. B. (2015). Understanding EFL Students' Errors in Writing. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(32), 99-106.
  • Polio, C. (2017). Second language writing development: A research agenda. Language Teaching, 50(2), 261-275.
  • Ramanathan, V. and Kaplan, R.B. (1996). Audience and voice in current composition texts: Some implications for ESL student writers. Journal of Second Language Writing, 5(1), 21-34.
  • Richards, J. C., & Renandya, W. A. (Eds.). (2002). Methodology in language teaching: An anthology of current practice. Cambridge university press.
  • Rinehart, S. D., & Thomas, K. F. (1993). Summarization ability and text recall by novice studiers. Literacy Research and Instruction, 32(4), 24-32.
  • Santrock, J. W. (2006). Life-span development (10th ed.). McGraw-Hill.
  • Schenck, A. D., & Choi, W. (2015). Improving EFL Writing Through Study of Semantic Concepts in Formulaic Language. English Language Teaching, 8(1), 142.
  • Sivell, J. (2013). Factors underlying students’ appropriate or inappropriate use of scholarly sources in academic writing, and instructors’ responses. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research, 1(2), 65-84.
  • Solak, E., & Bayar, A. (2015). Current Challenges in English Language Learning in Turkish EFL Context. Online Submission, 2(1), 106-115.
  • Steffensen, M. S., Joag-Dev, C., & Anderson, R. C. (1979). A cross-cultural perspective on reading comprehension. Reading research quarterly, 10-29.
  • Steinberg, L. (2005). Cognitive and affective development in adolescence. Trends in cognitive sciences, 9(2), 69-74.
  • Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research. 1998. Thousand Oaks.
  • Super, D. E. (1990). A life-span, life-space approach to career development. In D. Brown, L. Brooks, & Associates (Eds.), Career choice and development: Applying contemporary theories to practice (2nd ed., pp. 197-261). San Fran- cisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Susser, B. (1994). Process approaches in ESL/EFL writing instruction. Journal of Second language writing, 3(1), 31-47.
  • Tarnopolsky, O. (2000). Writing English as a foreign language: A report from Ukraine. Journal of Second Language Writing, 9(3), 209-226.
  • Trotman, W. (2010). Teacher Oral Feedback on Student Writing: An action research approach towards teacher-student conferences on EFL academic essay writing in a higher education context in Turkey. Doctoral dissertation, University of Warwick, The UK
  • Uysal, H. H. (2008). Tracing the culture behind writing: Rhetorical patterns and bidirectional transfer in L1 and L2 essays of Turkish writers in relation to educational context. Journal of Second Language Writing, 17(3), 183-207.
  • Vygotsky, L. S. (1980). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Harvard university press.
  • Yang, X. (2019). A review of negative language transfer regarding the errors in English writing in Chinese colleges. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 10(3), 603-609.
  • Yang, M., Badger, R., & Yu, Z. (2006). A comparative study of peer and teacher feedback in a Chinese EFL writing class. Journal of second language writing, 15(3), 179-200.
  • Yeşilyaprak, B. (2007). Gelişimsel Rehberlik[Developmental Guidance]. İstanbul: Morpa Kültür Yayınları Ltd. Şti.
  • Yeşilyaprak, B. (2012). Mesleki rehberlik ve kariyer danışmanlığında paradigma değişimi ve Türkiye açısından sonuçlar: Geçmişten geleceğe yönelik bir değerlendirme [Paradigm shift in the vocational guidance and career counseling and its results for Turkey: A review from the past to the future]. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 12(1), 97-118.
  • Younes, Z.M., & Albalawi, F.S. (2016). Investigating the Factors Leading to Speaking Difficulties: Both Perspectives of EFL Saudi Learners and Their Teachers. Arab World English Journal, 7, 268-287.
  • Yu, S., & Lee, I. (2016). Peer feedback in second language writing (2005–2014). Language Teaching, 49(4), 461-493.
  • Zamel, V. (1983). The composing processes of advanced ESL students: Six case studies. TESOL Quarterly, 17,165-187.
  • Zenouzagh, Z. M. (2018). Multidimensional analysis of efficacy of multimedia learning in development and sustained development of textuality in EFL writing performances. Education and Information Technologies, 23(6), 2969-2989.
  • Zhao, C., & Huang, J. (2020). The impact of the scoring system of a large-scale standardized EFL writing assessment on its score variability and reliability: Implications for assessment policy makers. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 67, 100911.
  • Zoghi, M., & Fakhimie Shokri, L. (2019). Effects of Pre-Task Strategic Planning on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners’ Writing Motivation and Accuracy. Journal of English Language Pedagogy and Practice, 11(23), 207-225.

Foreign Language Writing as a Developmental Process (Foundation, Expansion, Development, and Completion): The FEDCom Model

Year 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, 307 - 334, 30.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.768768

Abstract

This study investigates the problems that are encountered in learning writing in a foreign language from primary school to university in the Turkish context. It focuses particularly on the problems that teachers/instructors face in teaching writing in English to students concerning students' challenges. Forty teachers were interviewed in all levels, ten participants for each. Here, the challenges that the teachers observed their students faced in the learning process of writing in English were identified. Then, ten students at a tertiary level institution were interviewed about their experiences in learning writing in English in a retrospective manner. The devised FEDCom model illustrated the development of EFL writing of learners in each level of education. The model may be considered as the big picture of learning EFL writing in all education level of Turkey. It may help researchers, teacher trainers, and teachers who want to put forth solutions to the difficulties that learners may experience in learning writing in English.

References

  • Ahmed, A. H. (2010). Students’ problems with cohesion and coherence in EFL essay writing in Egypt: Different perspectives. Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal (LICEJ), 1(4), 211-221.
  • Akyel, A., & Kamisli, S. (1996). Composing in First and Second Languages: Possible Effects of EFL Writing Instruction. Paper presented at the Balkan Conference on English Language Teaching of the International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (2nd, Istanbul, Turkey, September 5-7, 1996). Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED401719.pdf
  • Alagozlu, N. (2007). Critical thinking and voice in EFL writing. Asian EFL journal, 9(3), 118-136.
  • Alharbi, M. A. (2019). Saudi Arabia EFL university students’ voice on challenges and solution in learning academic writing. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 8(3), 576-587.
  • Al Seyabi, F., & Tuzlukova, V. (2014). Writing problems and strategies: An investigative study in the Omani school and university context. Asian Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 3(4), 37-48.
  • Al-Zankawi, M. (2018). An Investigation of EFL Writing Strategies and Cohesion of Kuwaiti Undergraduate Students. Doctoral dissertation, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
  • Arslan, R. Ş., & Şahin-Kızıl, A. (2010). How can the use of blog software facilitate the writing process of English language learners?. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 23(3), 183-197.
  • Barkaoui, K. (2019). What can L2 writers’ pausing behaviour tell us about their L2 writing processes. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 41(3), 529-554.
  • Bennui, P. (2016). A study of L1 intereference in the writing of Thai EFL students. Malaysian Journal of ELT Research, 4(1), 72-102
  • Bozkurt, A., Aydin, B., Taskiran, A., & Koral, E. (2016). Improving creating writing skills of EFL learners through microblogging, The Online Journal of New Horizons in Education, 6(3), 88-98.
  • Brockman, E., & Taylor, M. (2016). Four College-Level Writing Assignments: Text Complexity, Close Reading, and the Five-Paragraph Essay. Teaching/Writing: The Journal of Writing Teacher Education, 5(1), 10.
  • Buyukyavuz, O., & Cakir, I. (2014). Uncovering the Motivating Factors Behind Writing in English in an EFL Context. Anthropologist, 18(1), 153-163.
  • Chen, Y. M. (2002). The problems of university EFL writing in Taiwan. The Korea TESOL Journal, 5(1), 59-79.
  • Choi, Y. H. (2016). Writing strategies in the process of L2 computer-mode academic writing with the use of multiple resources. English Teaching, 71(3), 3-28.
  • Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (2nd ed.). Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Cumming, A. (2001a). ESL/EFL instructors' practices for writing assessment: specific purposes or general purposes?. Language Testing, 18(2), 207-224.
  • Cumming, A. (2001b). Learning to write in a second language: Two decades of research. International journal of English studies, 1(2), 1-23.
  • Derakhshan, A., & Karimian Shirejini, R. (2020). An Investigation of the Iranian EFL Learners’ Perceptions Towards the Most Common Writing Problems. SAGE Open, 10(2), 2158244020919523.
  • Dogancay-Aktuna, S. (1998). The spread of English in Turkey and its current sociolinguistic profile. Journal of multilingual and multicultural Development, 19(1), 24-39. Emmons, R. H. (2003). An Effective Writing Formula for Unsure Writers. http://www.airpower.au.af.Mil/airchronicles/aureview/1975/sept.oct/emmons.html
  • Erkan, Y. D., & Saban, A. I. (2011). Writing performance relative to writing apprehension, self-efficacy in writing, and attitudes towards writing: A correlational study in Turkish tertiary-level EFL. The Asian EFL Journal Quarterly, 13(1), 163-191.
  • Erikson, E. H. (1956). The problem of ego identity. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 4(1), 56-121.
  • Ezza, E. S. (2010). Arab EFL learners’ writing dilemma at tertiary level. English Language Teaching, 3(4), 33-39
  • Ferris, D., & Hedgcock, J. S. (2005). Teacher response to student writing: Issues in oral and written feedback. Teaching ESL composition: Purpose, process and practice, 184-222.
  • Flavell, J. H. (1963). The university series in psychology. The developmental psychology of Jean Piaget. D Van Nostrand. New York
  • Flower, L., & Hayes, J. R. (1981). A cognitive process theory of writing. College composition and communication, 32(4), 365-387.
  • Ginzberg, E. (1972). Toward a theory of occupational choice: A restatement. Vocational guidance quarterly, 20(3), 2-9.
  • Glaser, B., & Strauss, A. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory. Weidenfield & Nicolson. London
  • Grabe, W. (2001). Notes toward a theory of second language writing. On second language writing, 39-57.
  • Guba, E.G. (1981). Criteria for assessing the trustworthiness of naturalistic inquiries, Educational Communication and Technology, 29(2), 75-91.
  • Güngör, F., & Uysal, H. H. (2020). Lexical bundle use and crosslinguistic influence in academic texts. Lingua, 242, 102859.
  • Hammad E.A. (2016) Palestinian University Students’ Problems with EFL Essay Writing in an Instructional Setting. In: Ahmed A., Abouabdelkader H. (Eds), Teaching EFL Writing in the 21st Century Arab World. Palgrave Macmillan, London.
  • Hasan, M. K., & Akhand, M. M. (2010). Approaches to writing in EFL/ESL context: Balancing product and process in writing class at tertiary level. Journal of NELTA, 15(1-2), 77-88.
  • Havighurst, R.J. (1972). Developmental tasks and education. New York: David McKay.
  • Hidayati, K. H. (2018). Teaching writing to EFL learners: An investigation of challenges confronted by Indonesian teachers. Langkawi: Journal of The Association for Arabic and English, 4(1), 21-31.
  • Hyland, K. (2019). Second language writing. Cambridge university press.
  • Hyland, K., & Hyland, F. (Eds.). (2019). Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues. Cambridge university press.
  • İnceçay, G. (2012). Turkey’s foreign language policy at primary level: Challenges in practice. ELT research journal, 1(1), 53-62.
  • Kaplan, R. B. (1966). Cultural thought patterns in inter‐cultural education. Language learning, 16(1‐2), 1-20.
  • Kirkgoz, Y. (2007). English language teaching in Turkey: Policy changes and their implementations. RELC journal, 38(2), 216-228.
  • Kırmızı, Ö., & Kırmızı, G. D. (2015). An investigation of L2 learners’ writing self-efficacy, writing anxiety and its causes at higher education in Turkey. International Journal of Higher Education, 4(2), p57.
  • Lee, I. (2007). Assessment for learning: Integrating assessment, teaching, and learning in the ESL/EFL writing classroom. Canadian modern language review, 64(1), 199-213.
  • Leki, I. (2001). Material, educational, and ideological challenges of teaching EFL writing at the turn of the century. International Journal of English Studies, 1(2), 197-209.
  • Leki, I. (2017). Undergraduates in a second language: Challenges and complexities of academic literacy development. Routledge.
  • Li, M. (2018). Computer-mediated collaborative writing in L2 contexts: An analysis of empirical research. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 31(8), 882-904.
  • Majchrzak, O. (2018). Learner identity and learner beliefs in EFL writing. New York, NY: Springer.
  • McMullen, M. G. (2009). Using language learning strategies to improve the writing skills of Saudi EFL students: Will it really work? System, 37(3), 418-433.
  • Mermelstein, A. D. (2015). Improving EFL learners' writing through enhanced extensive reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 27(2), 182.
  • Mıstık, S. (1994). The effect of peer feedback on the development of Turkish EFL students' writing proficiency. Doctoral dissertation, Bilkent University, Turkey
  • Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. Sage.
  • Miller, P. H. (2002). Theories of developmental psychology. Macmillan.
  • Moon, J. (2008). L2 children and writing: a neglected skill?. ELT journal, 62(4), 398-400.
  • Muslim, I. M. (2014). Helping EFL students improve their writing. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 4(2), 105-112.
  • Nunan, D. (1999). Second language teaching and learning. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
  • Ostler, S. E. (1987). A Study of the Contrastive Rhetoric of Arabic, English, Japanese, and Spanish: By Shirley Elaine Ostler. Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California, The USA
  • Ozsevik, Z. (2010). The use of communicative language teaching (CLT): Turkish EFL teachers' perceived difficulties in implementing CLT in Turkey. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Illinois, The USA
  • Öztürk, H., & Çeçen, S. (2007). The effects of portfolio keeping on writing anxiety of EFL students. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 3(2).
  • Pajares, F. (2003). Self-efficacy beliefs, motivation, and achievement in writing: A review of the literature. Reading &Writing Quarterly, 19(2), 139-158.
  • Perl, S. (1980). Understanding composing. College composition and communication, 31(4), 363-369.
  • Piaget, J. (1964). Part I: Cognitive development in children: Piaget development and learning. Journal of research in science teaching, 2(3), 176-186.
  • Phuket, P. R. N., & Othman, N. B. (2015). Understanding EFL Students' Errors in Writing. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(32), 99-106.
  • Polio, C. (2017). Second language writing development: A research agenda. Language Teaching, 50(2), 261-275.
  • Ramanathan, V. and Kaplan, R.B. (1996). Audience and voice in current composition texts: Some implications for ESL student writers. Journal of Second Language Writing, 5(1), 21-34.
  • Richards, J. C., & Renandya, W. A. (Eds.). (2002). Methodology in language teaching: An anthology of current practice. Cambridge university press.
  • Rinehart, S. D., & Thomas, K. F. (1993). Summarization ability and text recall by novice studiers. Literacy Research and Instruction, 32(4), 24-32.
  • Santrock, J. W. (2006). Life-span development (10th ed.). McGraw-Hill.
  • Schenck, A. D., & Choi, W. (2015). Improving EFL Writing Through Study of Semantic Concepts in Formulaic Language. English Language Teaching, 8(1), 142.
  • Sivell, J. (2013). Factors underlying students’ appropriate or inappropriate use of scholarly sources in academic writing, and instructors’ responses. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research, 1(2), 65-84.
  • Solak, E., & Bayar, A. (2015). Current Challenges in English Language Learning in Turkish EFL Context. Online Submission, 2(1), 106-115.
  • Steffensen, M. S., Joag-Dev, C., & Anderson, R. C. (1979). A cross-cultural perspective on reading comprehension. Reading research quarterly, 10-29.
  • Steinberg, L. (2005). Cognitive and affective development in adolescence. Trends in cognitive sciences, 9(2), 69-74.
  • Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research. 1998. Thousand Oaks.
  • Super, D. E. (1990). A life-span, life-space approach to career development. In D. Brown, L. Brooks, & Associates (Eds.), Career choice and development: Applying contemporary theories to practice (2nd ed., pp. 197-261). San Fran- cisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Susser, B. (1994). Process approaches in ESL/EFL writing instruction. Journal of Second language writing, 3(1), 31-47.
  • Tarnopolsky, O. (2000). Writing English as a foreign language: A report from Ukraine. Journal of Second Language Writing, 9(3), 209-226.
  • Trotman, W. (2010). Teacher Oral Feedback on Student Writing: An action research approach towards teacher-student conferences on EFL academic essay writing in a higher education context in Turkey. Doctoral dissertation, University of Warwick, The UK
  • Uysal, H. H. (2008). Tracing the culture behind writing: Rhetorical patterns and bidirectional transfer in L1 and L2 essays of Turkish writers in relation to educational context. Journal of Second Language Writing, 17(3), 183-207.
  • Vygotsky, L. S. (1980). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Harvard university press.
  • Yang, X. (2019). A review of negative language transfer regarding the errors in English writing in Chinese colleges. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 10(3), 603-609.
  • Yang, M., Badger, R., & Yu, Z. (2006). A comparative study of peer and teacher feedback in a Chinese EFL writing class. Journal of second language writing, 15(3), 179-200.
  • Yeşilyaprak, B. (2007). Gelişimsel Rehberlik[Developmental Guidance]. İstanbul: Morpa Kültür Yayınları Ltd. Şti.
  • Yeşilyaprak, B. (2012). Mesleki rehberlik ve kariyer danışmanlığında paradigma değişimi ve Türkiye açısından sonuçlar: Geçmişten geleceğe yönelik bir değerlendirme [Paradigm shift in the vocational guidance and career counseling and its results for Turkey: A review from the past to the future]. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 12(1), 97-118.
  • Younes, Z.M., & Albalawi, F.S. (2016). Investigating the Factors Leading to Speaking Difficulties: Both Perspectives of EFL Saudi Learners and Their Teachers. Arab World English Journal, 7, 268-287.
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Ali ERYILMAZ
Yildiz Technical University
0000-0001-9301-5946
Türkiye


Yusuf Emre YEŞİLYURT (Primary Author)
GAZİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-8520-1359
Türkiye

Publication Date December 30, 2020
Published in Issue Year 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2

Cite

APA Eryılmaz, A. & Yeşilyurt, Y. E. (2020). Foreign Language Writing as a Developmental Process (Foundation, Expansion, Development, and Completion): The FEDCom Model . International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research , 7 (2) , 307-334 . DOI: 10.33200/ijcer.768768

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IJCER (International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research) ISSN: 2148-3868