Research Article
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Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, 39 - 54, 03.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.845692

Abstract

References

  • Akça Berk, N., & Gültekin, F. (2012). Motiflerdeki tarih [The history in the motifs]. In H. Köksal (Ed.), Yenilikçi tarih öğretimi etkinlik örnekleri [Innovative history teaching activity examples] (pp. 399-407). Ankara: Harf Eğitim.
  • Aktın, K., & Dilek, D. (2016). Chronological thinking at preschool period: a case study. Sakarya University Journal of Education, 6(3), 116-131.
  • Alleman, J., & Brophy, J. (2003). History is alive: Teaching young children about changes over time. The Social Studies, 94(3), 107-110.
  • Bage, G. (2000). Thinking history 4-14. Teaching, learning, cirricula and communities. London: Routledge.
  • Barton, K. C. (2001). A sociocultural perspective on children’s understanding of historical change: Comparative findings from Northern Ireland and the United States. American Educational Research Journal, 38(4), 881-913.
  • Baykul, Y. (1999). İstatistik: Metodlar ve uygulamalar [Statistics: Methods and applications]. Ankara: Anı.
  • Blow, F. (2011). 'Everything flows and nothing stays: How students make sense of the historical concepts of change, continuity and development. Teaching History, 145, 47-55.
  • Brophy, J. E., & VanSledright, B. (1997). Teaching and learning history in elementary schools. NewYork: Teachers College.
  • Chandler, D., & Torbert, B. (2003). Transforming inquiry and action interweaving: 27 flavors of action research. Action Research, 1(2), 133–152.
  • Cooper, H. (2001). The teaching of history in primary schools. London: David Fulton.
  • Cooper, H. (Ed.). (2004). Exploring time and place through play. Lodon: David Fulton.
  • Cooper, H. (2012). History 5-11: A guide for teachers. London: Routledge.
  • Counsell, C. (2011). What do we want students to do with historical change and continuity? In I. Davies (Eds.), Debates in history teaching (pp. 109-123). London: Routledge.
  • Creswell, J. W. (2002). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
  • Crocker, L., & Algina, J. (1986). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
  • Çelik, H., Karadeniz, H., & Cabul, E. (2018). Students’ evaluations of change and continuity in the context of their experience in social studies classes: Hospitality example. Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies in Education, 2(2), 39-57.
  • De Groot-Reuvekamp, M. J., Van Boxtel, C., Ros, A., & Harnett, P. (2014). The understanding of historical time in the primary history curriculum in England and the Netherlands. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 46(4), 487-514.
  • Demircioğlu, İ. H. (2005). 8th grade students’ levels of understanding of some concepts regarding time and chronology used in the teaching of history. Eurasıan Journal of Educational Research, 19, 155-163.
  • Dere, İ., & Kalender, M. (2019). “I have a history!” Life sciences teaching with oral history activities. Education and Science, 44(200) 153-173.
  • Doğan, Y. (2015). Okul dışı sosyal bilgiler öğretiminde sözlü tarih [Oral history in out-of-school social studies teaching]. In A. Şimşek ve S. Kaymakcı (Eds.), Okul dışı sosyal bilgiler öğretimi [Out-of-school social studies teaching] (pp. 113-142). Ankara: Pegem.
  • Drake, F. D., & Nelson, L. R. (2005). Engagement in teaching history: Theory and practices for middle and secondary teachers. Pearson: Merril Prentice Hall.
  • Ebel, R. L., & Frisbie, D. A. (1986). Essentials of educational measurement, Retreived from https://ebookppsunp.files.wordpress.com/2016/06/robert_l-ebel_david_a-_frisbie_essentials_of_edbookfi-org.pdf.
  • Elliot, J. (1991). Action research for educational change. Philadelphia: Open University.
  • Ellis, A. K. (2007). Teaching and learning. Elementary social studies. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Epstein, T.L. (1997). Sociocultural approaches to young people's historical understanding. Social Education, 61(1), 28-31.
  • Field, S. L., Labbo, L. D., Wilhelm, R.W., & Garrett, A.W. (1996). To touch, to feel, to see: Artifact inquiry in the social studies classroom. Social Education, 60(3), 141-43.
  • Ford, A. (2015). Progression in historical thinking. Retrieved from http://www.andallthat.co.uk/uploads/2/3/8/9/2389220/progression_in_historical_thinking.docx.
  • Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2011). How to design and evaluate research in education. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Galán, J. G. (2016). Learning historical and chronological time practical applications. European Journal of Science and Theology, 12(1), 5-16.
  • Gandy, S. K. (2005). Teaching social studies on a shoestring budget. Social Education, 69(2), 98-113.
  • Glesne, C. (2013). Nitel araştırmaya giriş[Introduction to qualitative research]. (A. Ersoy & P. Yalçınoğlu, Çev.). Ankara: Anı.
  • Hayırsever, F. (2010). Evaluation of social studies textbooks, teachers? books and workbooks in terms of the basic skills to be instilled in students according to the social studies curriculum.(Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/.
  • Hendricks, C. (2006). Improving schools through action research: A comprehensive for educators. Boston: Pearson Education.
  • Hickey, M. G. (1997). Bloomers, bell bottoms, and hula hoops: Artifact collections aid children's historical interpretation. Social Education, 61(5), 293-99.
  • Hodkinson, A. (2004). The social context and the assimilation of historical concepts: An indicator of academic performance or an unreliable metric? Research in Education, 71, 50–66.
  • Hoodless, P. A. (2002). An investigation into children's developing awareness of time and chronology in story. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 34(2), 173-200.
  • Hudson, J. A., Shapiro, L. R., & Sosa, B. S. (1995). Planning in the real world: Preschool children’s scripts and plans for familiar events. Child Development, 66, 984–998.
  • Ivankova, N. V. (2014). Mixed methods applications in action research: From methods to community action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Johnson, A. P. (2005). A short guide to action research. USA: Pearson.
  • Johnson, A.P. (2014). Eylem araştırması el kitabı [Action research handbook.(Y.Uzuner & M.Ö. Anay, Çev.). Ankara: Anı.
  • Kabapınar, Y. (2014). Kuramdan uygulamaya sosyal bilgiler öğretimi [Social studies teaching from theory to practice]. Ankara: Pegem.
  • Kabapınar, Y., & İncegül, S. (2016). Child games and toys within the framework of change and continuity: an oral history study. Turkish History Education Journal, 5(1), 74-96.
  • Kabapınar, Y., & İncegül, S. (2016). Değişim ve süreklilik bağlamında oyun ve oyuncağa bakmak: bir sözlü tarih çalışması [Child games and toys wiıthin the framework of change and continuity: An oral history study]. Turkish History Education Journal, 5(1), 74-96.
  • Kabapınar, Y., & Sağlamgöncü, U. A. (2017). Investigation of the history of material in social studies courses: The history of material? What next? Erciyes Journal of Education [EJE], 1(1), 1-21.
  • Kabapınar, Y., & Sağlamgöncü, A. (2018). The efficiency of visual reading in terms of understanding “change and continuity” in social studies courses: An action research. Inonu University Journal of the Graduate School of Education, 5(9), 51-74.
  • Kehoe, J. (1995). Basic item analysis for multiple-choice tests. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation, 4(10), 1-3.
  • Kemmis, S., & McTaggart, R. (1988). Action research planner. Victoria: Deaken University.
  • Kırpık, C. (2012). Osmanlı’dan Cumhuriyet’e Türkiye’de başlığın değişimi [The change of the hat in Turkey from the Ottoman Empire to the Republic]. In H. Köksal (Ed.), Yenilikçi tarih öğretimi etkinlik örnekleri [Innovative history teaching activity examples], (pp.185-196). Ankara: Harf Eğitim.
  • Kiriş Avaroğulları, A. (2014). An evaluation of ninth grade history curriculum with respect to procedural concepts. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 29(3), 95-109.
  • Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personel Psychology, 28, 563–575.
  • Levstik, L. S., & Barton, K. C. (1994). They still use some of their past’: historical salience in elementary children's chronological thinking. Retrieved from https://files. eric. ed.gov/fulltext/ED382492.pdf.
  • Levstik, L.S., & Barton, K.C. (1997). Doing history. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Marancı, Ş. (2017). Historical time perception with photographs of the seventh grade students. (Master's thesis). Retrieved from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/.
  • Martí, J. (2016). Measuring in action research: Four ways of integrating quantitative methods in participatory dynamics. Action Research, 14(2), 168-183.
  • Martin, G. (2013). Authentic engagement with the discipline: Historical understandings in the Australian curriculum: History. Education and Society, 31(2), 5-23.
  • Maxim, G. W. (1997). Time capsules: Tools of the classroom historian. The Social Studies, 88(5), 227-232.
  • McNiff, J., & Whitehead, J. (2010). You and your action research project. New York: Routledge.
  • Mills, G. E. (2007). Action research a guide for the teacher researcher. New Jersey: Pearson Merril Prentice Hall.
  • Norton, L. (2009). Action research in teaching and learning: A practical guide to conducting pedagogical research in universities. Routledge.
  • Özen, R. (2010). Primary education 7. grade students time, permanence and cahange ġnvestigetion of skill (Qualitative a research). (Master's thesis). Retrieved from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/.
  • Öztürk, İ. H. (2011). Problem of anachronism in history teaching: An analysis of fictional texts in social studies and history textbooks. Journal of Social Studies Education Research, 2(1), 37-58.
  • Rowell, C. G., Hickey, M. G., Gecsei, K., & Klein, S. (2007). A school-wide effort for learning history via a time capsule. Social Education, 71(5), 261-267.
  • Rule, A.C. & Sunal, C.S. (1997). Buttoning up a hands-on history lesson: Using everyday objects to teach about historical change. In M. E. Hass & M.A. Laughlin (Eds.), Meeting the standarts: Social studies readings for K-6 (pp. 46-48). Washington: NCSS.
  • Russell, J. (2014). Practitioner’s page: Artifact-based learning: Uncovering the treasures of the past. Pennsylvania Educational Leadership, 34(1) 89-95.
  • Safran, M., & Şimşek, A. (2006). Development of historical time concept in elementary school’s students. Elementary Education Online, 5(2), 87-109.
  • Seefeldt, C., Castle, S., & Falconer, B. R. (2015). Social studies for the preschool/primary child (Çev. Keskin, S. C.). Ankara: Nobel.
  • Seixas, P., & Peck, C. (2004). Teaching historical thinking. In A. Sears & I. Wright (Eds.), Challenges and prospects for Canadian social studies (pp. 109-117). Vancouver: Pacific Educational.
  • Seixas, P. (2006). Benchmarks of historical thinking: A framework for assessment in Canada. Retrieved from http://www.histoirereperes.ca/sites/default/ files/files/docs/Framework_EN.pdf.
  • Seixas, P., & Morton, T. (2012). The big 6: Historical thinking concepts. Toronto, ON, Canada: Nelson.
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An Action Research to Improve Change and Continuity Perception in Social Studies

Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, 39 - 54, 03.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.845692

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to develop the students’ skills of change and continuity through activities based on the objects in fourth-grade social studies. In alignment with the scope, an action research design was used in which the researcher is also the executor. A criterion sampling was used for recruitment which resulted in 17 fourth-grade students agreeing to participate in the study. Data collection tools included achievement test, open-ended questions, semi-structured interview forms, video recording and student journals. Wilcoxon signed ranks test, grading key and content analysis were used in the analysis of the data. The results of the study showed that there is a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of students in object-based activities. Within the scope of change and continuity, it was seen that students can identify similarities and differences, make estimations on the perception of future time, discover the effects of sociocultural context along with change and continuity, provide chronological visual evidences, and put them in order. However, it was found that students can’t develop multiple causality relationships related to change, that they interpret causes in relation to change and continuity from a limited perspective, that they do not consider different disciplines when expressing the powerful effects of technology in change processes. 

References

  • Akça Berk, N., & Gültekin, F. (2012). Motiflerdeki tarih [The history in the motifs]. In H. Köksal (Ed.), Yenilikçi tarih öğretimi etkinlik örnekleri [Innovative history teaching activity examples] (pp. 399-407). Ankara: Harf Eğitim.
  • Aktın, K., & Dilek, D. (2016). Chronological thinking at preschool period: a case study. Sakarya University Journal of Education, 6(3), 116-131.
  • Alleman, J., & Brophy, J. (2003). History is alive: Teaching young children about changes over time. The Social Studies, 94(3), 107-110.
  • Bage, G. (2000). Thinking history 4-14. Teaching, learning, cirricula and communities. London: Routledge.
  • Barton, K. C. (2001). A sociocultural perspective on children’s understanding of historical change: Comparative findings from Northern Ireland and the United States. American Educational Research Journal, 38(4), 881-913.
  • Baykul, Y. (1999). İstatistik: Metodlar ve uygulamalar [Statistics: Methods and applications]. Ankara: Anı.
  • Blow, F. (2011). 'Everything flows and nothing stays: How students make sense of the historical concepts of change, continuity and development. Teaching History, 145, 47-55.
  • Brophy, J. E., & VanSledright, B. (1997). Teaching and learning history in elementary schools. NewYork: Teachers College.
  • Chandler, D., & Torbert, B. (2003). Transforming inquiry and action interweaving: 27 flavors of action research. Action Research, 1(2), 133–152.
  • Cooper, H. (2001). The teaching of history in primary schools. London: David Fulton.
  • Cooper, H. (Ed.). (2004). Exploring time and place through play. Lodon: David Fulton.
  • Cooper, H. (2012). History 5-11: A guide for teachers. London: Routledge.
  • Counsell, C. (2011). What do we want students to do with historical change and continuity? In I. Davies (Eds.), Debates in history teaching (pp. 109-123). London: Routledge.
  • Creswell, J. W. (2002). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
  • Crocker, L., & Algina, J. (1986). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
  • Çelik, H., Karadeniz, H., & Cabul, E. (2018). Students’ evaluations of change and continuity in the context of their experience in social studies classes: Hospitality example. Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies in Education, 2(2), 39-57.
  • De Groot-Reuvekamp, M. J., Van Boxtel, C., Ros, A., & Harnett, P. (2014). The understanding of historical time in the primary history curriculum in England and the Netherlands. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 46(4), 487-514.
  • Demircioğlu, İ. H. (2005). 8th grade students’ levels of understanding of some concepts regarding time and chronology used in the teaching of history. Eurasıan Journal of Educational Research, 19, 155-163.
  • Dere, İ., & Kalender, M. (2019). “I have a history!” Life sciences teaching with oral history activities. Education and Science, 44(200) 153-173.
  • Doğan, Y. (2015). Okul dışı sosyal bilgiler öğretiminde sözlü tarih [Oral history in out-of-school social studies teaching]. In A. Şimşek ve S. Kaymakcı (Eds.), Okul dışı sosyal bilgiler öğretimi [Out-of-school social studies teaching] (pp. 113-142). Ankara: Pegem.
  • Drake, F. D., & Nelson, L. R. (2005). Engagement in teaching history: Theory and practices for middle and secondary teachers. Pearson: Merril Prentice Hall.
  • Ebel, R. L., & Frisbie, D. A. (1986). Essentials of educational measurement, Retreived from https://ebookppsunp.files.wordpress.com/2016/06/robert_l-ebel_david_a-_frisbie_essentials_of_edbookfi-org.pdf.
  • Elliot, J. (1991). Action research for educational change. Philadelphia: Open University.
  • Ellis, A. K. (2007). Teaching and learning. Elementary social studies. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Epstein, T.L. (1997). Sociocultural approaches to young people's historical understanding. Social Education, 61(1), 28-31.
  • Field, S. L., Labbo, L. D., Wilhelm, R.W., & Garrett, A.W. (1996). To touch, to feel, to see: Artifact inquiry in the social studies classroom. Social Education, 60(3), 141-43.
  • Ford, A. (2015). Progression in historical thinking. Retrieved from http://www.andallthat.co.uk/uploads/2/3/8/9/2389220/progression_in_historical_thinking.docx.
  • Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2011). How to design and evaluate research in education. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Galán, J. G. (2016). Learning historical and chronological time practical applications. European Journal of Science and Theology, 12(1), 5-16.
  • Gandy, S. K. (2005). Teaching social studies on a shoestring budget. Social Education, 69(2), 98-113.
  • Glesne, C. (2013). Nitel araştırmaya giriş[Introduction to qualitative research]. (A. Ersoy & P. Yalçınoğlu, Çev.). Ankara: Anı.
  • Hayırsever, F. (2010). Evaluation of social studies textbooks, teachers? books and workbooks in terms of the basic skills to be instilled in students according to the social studies curriculum.(Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/.
  • Hendricks, C. (2006). Improving schools through action research: A comprehensive for educators. Boston: Pearson Education.
  • Hickey, M. G. (1997). Bloomers, bell bottoms, and hula hoops: Artifact collections aid children's historical interpretation. Social Education, 61(5), 293-99.
  • Hodkinson, A. (2004). The social context and the assimilation of historical concepts: An indicator of academic performance or an unreliable metric? Research in Education, 71, 50–66.
  • Hoodless, P. A. (2002). An investigation into children's developing awareness of time and chronology in story. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 34(2), 173-200.
  • Hudson, J. A., Shapiro, L. R., & Sosa, B. S. (1995). Planning in the real world: Preschool children’s scripts and plans for familiar events. Child Development, 66, 984–998.
  • Ivankova, N. V. (2014). Mixed methods applications in action research: From methods to community action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Johnson, A. P. (2005). A short guide to action research. USA: Pearson.
  • Johnson, A.P. (2014). Eylem araştırması el kitabı [Action research handbook.(Y.Uzuner & M.Ö. Anay, Çev.). Ankara: Anı.
  • Kabapınar, Y. (2014). Kuramdan uygulamaya sosyal bilgiler öğretimi [Social studies teaching from theory to practice]. Ankara: Pegem.
  • Kabapınar, Y., & İncegül, S. (2016). Child games and toys within the framework of change and continuity: an oral history study. Turkish History Education Journal, 5(1), 74-96.
  • Kabapınar, Y., & İncegül, S. (2016). Değişim ve süreklilik bağlamında oyun ve oyuncağa bakmak: bir sözlü tarih çalışması [Child games and toys wiıthin the framework of change and continuity: An oral history study]. Turkish History Education Journal, 5(1), 74-96.
  • Kabapınar, Y., & Sağlamgöncü, U. A. (2017). Investigation of the history of material in social studies courses: The history of material? What next? Erciyes Journal of Education [EJE], 1(1), 1-21.
  • Kabapınar, Y., & Sağlamgöncü, A. (2018). The efficiency of visual reading in terms of understanding “change and continuity” in social studies courses: An action research. Inonu University Journal of the Graduate School of Education, 5(9), 51-74.
  • Kehoe, J. (1995). Basic item analysis for multiple-choice tests. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation, 4(10), 1-3.
  • Kemmis, S., & McTaggart, R. (1988). Action research planner. Victoria: Deaken University.
  • Kırpık, C. (2012). Osmanlı’dan Cumhuriyet’e Türkiye’de başlığın değişimi [The change of the hat in Turkey from the Ottoman Empire to the Republic]. In H. Köksal (Ed.), Yenilikçi tarih öğretimi etkinlik örnekleri [Innovative history teaching activity examples], (pp.185-196). Ankara: Harf Eğitim.
  • Kiriş Avaroğulları, A. (2014). An evaluation of ninth grade history curriculum with respect to procedural concepts. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 29(3), 95-109.
  • Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personel Psychology, 28, 563–575.
  • Levstik, L. S., & Barton, K. C. (1994). They still use some of their past’: historical salience in elementary children's chronological thinking. Retrieved from https://files. eric. ed.gov/fulltext/ED382492.pdf.
  • Levstik, L.S., & Barton, K.C. (1997). Doing history. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Marancı, Ş. (2017). Historical time perception with photographs of the seventh grade students. (Master's thesis). Retrieved from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/.
  • Martí, J. (2016). Measuring in action research: Four ways of integrating quantitative methods in participatory dynamics. Action Research, 14(2), 168-183.
  • Martin, G. (2013). Authentic engagement with the discipline: Historical understandings in the Australian curriculum: History. Education and Society, 31(2), 5-23.
  • Maxim, G. W. (1997). Time capsules: Tools of the classroom historian. The Social Studies, 88(5), 227-232.
  • McNiff, J., & Whitehead, J. (2010). You and your action research project. New York: Routledge.
  • Mills, G. E. (2007). Action research a guide for the teacher researcher. New Jersey: Pearson Merril Prentice Hall.
  • Norton, L. (2009). Action research in teaching and learning: A practical guide to conducting pedagogical research in universities. Routledge.
  • Özen, R. (2010). Primary education 7. grade students time, permanence and cahange ġnvestigetion of skill (Qualitative a research). (Master's thesis). Retrieved from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/.
  • Öztürk, İ. H. (2011). Problem of anachronism in history teaching: An analysis of fictional texts in social studies and history textbooks. Journal of Social Studies Education Research, 2(1), 37-58.
  • Rowell, C. G., Hickey, M. G., Gecsei, K., & Klein, S. (2007). A school-wide effort for learning history via a time capsule. Social Education, 71(5), 261-267.
  • Rule, A.C. & Sunal, C.S. (1997). Buttoning up a hands-on history lesson: Using everyday objects to teach about historical change. In M. E. Hass & M.A. Laughlin (Eds.), Meeting the standarts: Social studies readings for K-6 (pp. 46-48). Washington: NCSS.
  • Russell, J. (2014). Practitioner’s page: Artifact-based learning: Uncovering the treasures of the past. Pennsylvania Educational Leadership, 34(1) 89-95.
  • Safran, M., & Şimşek, A. (2006). Development of historical time concept in elementary school’s students. Elementary Education Online, 5(2), 87-109.
  • Seefeldt, C., Castle, S., & Falconer, B. R. (2015). Social studies for the preschool/primary child (Çev. Keskin, S. C.). Ankara: Nobel.
  • Seixas, P., & Peck, C. (2004). Teaching historical thinking. In A. Sears & I. Wright (Eds.), Challenges and prospects for Canadian social studies (pp. 109-117). Vancouver: Pacific Educational.
  • Seixas, P. (2006). Benchmarks of historical thinking: A framework for assessment in Canada. Retrieved from http://www.histoirereperes.ca/sites/default/ files/files/docs/Framework_EN.pdf.
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Burcu SEL (Primary Author)
T.C. MİLLİ EĞİTİM BAKANLIĞI
0000-0002-7663-0434
Türkiye


Mehmet Akif SÖZER
Gazı University
0000-0002-1291-4067
Türkiye

Project Number Bu çalışma birinci yazarından doktora tezinden üretilmiştir.
Publication Date September 3, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3

Cite

APA Sel, B. & Sözer, M. A. (2021). An Action Research to Improve Change and Continuity Perception in Social Studies . International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research , 8 (3) , 39-54 . DOI: 10.33200/ijcer.845692

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Bu eser Creative Commons Atıf-GayriTicari-Türetilemez 4.0 Uluslararası Lisansı ile lisanslanmıştır.

IJCER (International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research) ISSN: 2148-3868