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Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, 130 - 142, 15.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.942575

Abstract

References

  • Akkocaoğlu Çayır, N. (2015a). A qualitative study on education of philosophy for children. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Hacettepe, Ankara, Turkey.
  • Akkocaoğlu Çayır, N. (2015b). Philosophy for children. Cito Education: Theory and Practice, Cito Eğitim: Kuram ve Uygulama, 27, 17-28.
  • Aydın Yardım, Z. (2005). Childhood philosophy in literatüre for children in terms of global elements. (Unpublished master dissertation). Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey.
  • Bahar, M., Nartgün, Z., Durmuş, S. & Bıçak, B. (2008). Geleneksel-alternatif ölçme ve değerlendirme (2. baskı). Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
  • Benade, L. (2011). Philosophy for children (P4C): a New Zealand school-based action research case study. New Zealand Journal of Teachers’ Work, 8(2), 141-155.
  • Boyacı, N. P., Karadağ, F. & Gülenç, K. (2018). Philosophy for Children / Philosophy with Children: Philosophical Methods, Applicatıons and Objectives. Kaygı, 31, 145-173.
  • Boyraz, C. & Türcan, B. (2017). Çocuklar için felsefe eğitiminde görsel materyallerin kullanımı: TRT çocuk örneği. EJER 2017 Konferansı Bildiri Özetleri Kitabı, 888-889.
  • Britz, J. (1993). Problem solving in early childhood. ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education Urbana IL. Advance online publication. ED355040.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2016). Deneysel desenler öntest-sontest kontrol grubu desen ve veri analizi. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
  • Colom, R., Moriyón, F. G., Magro, C. & Morilla, E. (2014). The long-term impact of philosophy for children: A longitudinal study (preliminary results). Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis, 35(1), 50-56.
  • Dalğar, G. (2017). Examining the effect of visual art education programme on the critical thinking skills of preschool children. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Gazi, Ankara, Turkey.
  • Daniel, M. F. & Auriac, E. (2011). Philosophy, critical thinking and philosophy for children. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 43(5), 415-435. Advance online publication. doi:10.1111/j.1469-5812.2008.00483.x.
  • Dumitru, D. (2012). Communities of inquiry. A method to teach. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 33, 238-242.
  • Durmuş, E. (2008). Eğitimde rehberlik hizmetleri. M. E. Deniz, A. Erözkan (Ed.), Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik (95-128). Ankara: Maya Akademi.
  • Erdoğan, P. (2018). A study on the intellectual, historical and social foundations of the philosophy with children approach. (Unpublished master dissertation). Ankara Üniversity, Ankara, Turkey.
  • Erfani, N., Shobeiri, S. M., Karimi, L. & Atar, S. (2014). The effect of teaching philosophy for the children on student's problem-solving skill and creativity. International Journal of Management and Humanity Sciences, 3, 1603-1608.
  • Fair, F., Haas, L. E., Gardosik, C., Johnson, D. D., Price, D. P. & Leipnik, O. (2015). Socrates in the schools from Scotland to Texas: Replicating a study on the effects of a philosophy for children program. Journal of Philosophy in Schools 2(1), 18-37.
  • Funston, J. (2017). Toward a critical philosophy for children. Portland State University McNair Scholars Online Journal, 11, 1-17.
  • Garcia-Moriyon, F., Rebollo, İ. & Colom, R. (2005). Evaluating philosophy for children: A Meta analysis. Thinking: The Journal of Philosophy for Children, 17(4), 14-22.
  • Gasparatou, R. & Kampeza, M. (2012). Introducing P4C in kindergarten in Greece. Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis, 33(1), 72-82.
  • George, D. & Mallery, P. (2010). SPSS for Windows step by step. A simple study guide and reference (10th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
  • Gillies, R. M., Nichols, K. & Burgh, G. (2011). Promoting problem-solving and reasoning during cooperative inquiry science. Teaching Education, 22(4), 427-443.
  • Gur, C. & Kocak, N. (2018). Multidimensional thinking education in preschool. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 73, 77-94.
  • Heyman, G. D. (2008). Children’s critical thinking when learning from others. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17(5), 344-347.
  • Imany, H., Ahghar, G. & Seif Naraghi, M. (2016). The role of philosophy for children (p4c) teaching approach for improving the reading comprehension skills of guidance school female students. Interdisciplinary Journal of Education, 1(1), 54-59.
  • Johnson, A. P. (2015). Eylem araştırması el kitabı (Y. Uzuner ve M. Ö. Anay, Çev.). Ankara: Anı.
  • Juuso, H. (2007). Child, philosophy and education. University of Oulu, Faculty of Education, Oulu.
  • Karadağ, F. & Yıldız Demirtaş, V. (2018). The effectiveness of the philosophy with children curriculum on critical thinking skills of pre-school children. Education and Science, 43(195), 19-40.
  • Karadağ, F., Yıldız Demirtaş, V. & Yıldız, T. (2017). Development of critical thinking scale through philosophical inquiry for children 5-6 years old. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 9(4), 1025 -1037.
  • Kınık, B. (2018). An analysis of the impact Montessori-based individualized education program has on the problem-solving skills of children who need special education. (Unpublished master dissertation). Abant İzzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey.
  • Lam, C. M. (2011). Continuing Lipman's and Sharp's pioneering work on philosophy for children: using Harry to foster critical thinking in Hong Kong students. Educational Research and Evaluation, 18(2), 187-203.
  • Lipman, M. (1996). Natasha: Vygotskian dialogues. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Lone, J. M. (2012). The Philosophical Child. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  • Millett, S. & Tapper, A. (2012). Benefits of collaborative philosophical inquiry in schools. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 44(5), 546-567. Advance online publication. doi:10.1111/j.14695812.2010.00727.x.
  • Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı (2013). Okul öncesi eğitim programı (36-72 aylık çocuklar için). Ankara: MEB.
  • Mutlu, E. (2010). Investigating the thinking levels of children in early childhood period (60-72 months) and attitudes of preschool teachers related to thinking education. (Unpublished master dissertation). Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale, Turkey.
  • Naseri, S., Gorjian, Z., Ebrahimi, M. R. & Niakan, M. (2017). Critical thinking in P4C (Philosophy for children) educators: An intervention study. International Journal of Scientific Study, 5(7), 108-113.
  • Oğuz, V. & Köksal Akyol, A. (2015). Problem-Solving Skills Scale (PSSS) Validity and Reliability. Çukurova University Faculty of Education Journal, 44(1), 105-122.
  • Okur, M. (2008). Effects of philosophy for children on social skills that are: assertiveness, self-control and cooperation at children of six years old. (Unpublished master dissertation). Marmara University, İstanbul, Turkey.
  • Rahdar, A., Pourghaz, A. & Marziyeh, A. (2018). The impact of teaching philosophy for children on critical openness and reflective skepticism in developing critical thinking and self efficacy. International Journal of Instruction, 11(3), 539-556.
  • Seifi, G. M. Y., Shaghagni, F. & Kalantari, M. S. (2011). Efficacy of philosophy for children program (P4C) on self-esteem and problem solving abilities of girls. Journal of Apllied Psychology, 5(2), 66-83.
  • Sigurborsdottir, I. (1998). Philosophy with children in Foldaborg: Development project in Foldaborg, a preschool in Reykjavik for children from 1-6 years. International Journal of Early Childhood, 30(1), 14.
  • Taş, I. (2017). The effects of philosophy for children on theory of mind and creativity of 48-72 month-old children. (Unpublished master dissertation). Çukurova University, Adana, Turkey.
  • Tok, E. & Sevinç, M. (2010). The effects of thinking skills education on the critical thinking and problem solving skills of preschool teacher candidates. Pamukkale University Journal of Education, 27, 67-82.
  • Topping, K. J. & Trickey, S. (2015). Philosophy for children: short and long term effects. In R. Wegerif, L. Li & J. C. Kaufman (Eds.), The Routledge International Handbook of Research on Teaching Thinking (pp.103-112). Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.
  • Trickey, S. & Topping, K. J. (2004). ‘Philosophy for children’: a systematic review. Research Papers in Education, 19 (3), 365-380. Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/0267152042000248016.
  • Tümkaya, S. & Gülaçtı, F. (2010). Erken çocukluk eğitimi. Ankara: Nobel.
  • UNESCO (2007). Philosophy a school of freedom. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.
  • Valitalo, R. (2018). The philosophical classroom. University of Oulu, Faculty of Education, Oulu.
  • Vansieleghem, N. & Kennedy, D. (2011). What is philosophy for children, what is philosophy with children- after Matthew Lipman?. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 45(2),171-182.

The Effect of Philosophy for Children (P4C) Curriculum on Critical Thinking through Philosophical Inquiry and Problem Solving Skills

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, 130 - 142, 15.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.942575

Abstract

This study aims to examine the effect of P4C curriculum on 5-6-year-old children’s critical thinking through philosophical inquiry and their problem solving skills. The working group of the study held a total of 40 children who learned at kindergartens of a primary school in Çanakkale, Turkey. The study used a quasi-experimental model with pretest-posttest control group. Prepared by asking two experts’ views, the "Philosophy for Children Curriculum" was administered to the children in the experimental group as two sessions per week, for ten weeks, with an average of 40 minutes in total. The study deployed "Critical Thinking Scale through Philosophical Inquiry for Children 5-6 Years Old" and “Problem Solving Skills Scale for Children (PSSS)” as data collection tools. The analysis results showed a significant difference between the pretest and posttest scores of both groups in terms of the experimental groups’s critical thinking skills through philosophical inquiry within group comparisons. Although the posttest mean score of the experimental group's critical thinking skills through philosophical inquiry was higher than the control group, no statistically significant difference was observed between them. Considering the comparisons of problem solving skills within groups, a significant difference was determined between the pretest and posttest scores of both groups. When the problem solving skills were compared between groups posttest results, a significant difference was noted in favor of the experimental group.

References

  • Akkocaoğlu Çayır, N. (2015a). A qualitative study on education of philosophy for children. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Hacettepe, Ankara, Turkey.
  • Akkocaoğlu Çayır, N. (2015b). Philosophy for children. Cito Education: Theory and Practice, Cito Eğitim: Kuram ve Uygulama, 27, 17-28.
  • Aydın Yardım, Z. (2005). Childhood philosophy in literatüre for children in terms of global elements. (Unpublished master dissertation). Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey.
  • Bahar, M., Nartgün, Z., Durmuş, S. & Bıçak, B. (2008). Geleneksel-alternatif ölçme ve değerlendirme (2. baskı). Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
  • Benade, L. (2011). Philosophy for children (P4C): a New Zealand school-based action research case study. New Zealand Journal of Teachers’ Work, 8(2), 141-155.
  • Boyacı, N. P., Karadağ, F. & Gülenç, K. (2018). Philosophy for Children / Philosophy with Children: Philosophical Methods, Applicatıons and Objectives. Kaygı, 31, 145-173.
  • Boyraz, C. & Türcan, B. (2017). Çocuklar için felsefe eğitiminde görsel materyallerin kullanımı: TRT çocuk örneği. EJER 2017 Konferansı Bildiri Özetleri Kitabı, 888-889.
  • Britz, J. (1993). Problem solving in early childhood. ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education Urbana IL. Advance online publication. ED355040.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2016). Deneysel desenler öntest-sontest kontrol grubu desen ve veri analizi. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
  • Colom, R., Moriyón, F. G., Magro, C. & Morilla, E. (2014). The long-term impact of philosophy for children: A longitudinal study (preliminary results). Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis, 35(1), 50-56.
  • Dalğar, G. (2017). Examining the effect of visual art education programme on the critical thinking skills of preschool children. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Gazi, Ankara, Turkey.
  • Daniel, M. F. & Auriac, E. (2011). Philosophy, critical thinking and philosophy for children. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 43(5), 415-435. Advance online publication. doi:10.1111/j.1469-5812.2008.00483.x.
  • Dumitru, D. (2012). Communities of inquiry. A method to teach. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 33, 238-242.
  • Durmuş, E. (2008). Eğitimde rehberlik hizmetleri. M. E. Deniz, A. Erözkan (Ed.), Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik (95-128). Ankara: Maya Akademi.
  • Erdoğan, P. (2018). A study on the intellectual, historical and social foundations of the philosophy with children approach. (Unpublished master dissertation). Ankara Üniversity, Ankara, Turkey.
  • Erfani, N., Shobeiri, S. M., Karimi, L. & Atar, S. (2014). The effect of teaching philosophy for the children on student's problem-solving skill and creativity. International Journal of Management and Humanity Sciences, 3, 1603-1608.
  • Fair, F., Haas, L. E., Gardosik, C., Johnson, D. D., Price, D. P. & Leipnik, O. (2015). Socrates in the schools from Scotland to Texas: Replicating a study on the effects of a philosophy for children program. Journal of Philosophy in Schools 2(1), 18-37.
  • Funston, J. (2017). Toward a critical philosophy for children. Portland State University McNair Scholars Online Journal, 11, 1-17.
  • Garcia-Moriyon, F., Rebollo, İ. & Colom, R. (2005). Evaluating philosophy for children: A Meta analysis. Thinking: The Journal of Philosophy for Children, 17(4), 14-22.
  • Gasparatou, R. & Kampeza, M. (2012). Introducing P4C in kindergarten in Greece. Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis, 33(1), 72-82.
  • George, D. & Mallery, P. (2010). SPSS for Windows step by step. A simple study guide and reference (10th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
  • Gillies, R. M., Nichols, K. & Burgh, G. (2011). Promoting problem-solving and reasoning during cooperative inquiry science. Teaching Education, 22(4), 427-443.
  • Gur, C. & Kocak, N. (2018). Multidimensional thinking education in preschool. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 73, 77-94.
  • Heyman, G. D. (2008). Children’s critical thinking when learning from others. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17(5), 344-347.
  • Imany, H., Ahghar, G. & Seif Naraghi, M. (2016). The role of philosophy for children (p4c) teaching approach for improving the reading comprehension skills of guidance school female students. Interdisciplinary Journal of Education, 1(1), 54-59.
  • Johnson, A. P. (2015). Eylem araştırması el kitabı (Y. Uzuner ve M. Ö. Anay, Çev.). Ankara: Anı.
  • Juuso, H. (2007). Child, philosophy and education. University of Oulu, Faculty of Education, Oulu.
  • Karadağ, F. & Yıldız Demirtaş, V. (2018). The effectiveness of the philosophy with children curriculum on critical thinking skills of pre-school children. Education and Science, 43(195), 19-40.
  • Karadağ, F., Yıldız Demirtaş, V. & Yıldız, T. (2017). Development of critical thinking scale through philosophical inquiry for children 5-6 years old. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 9(4), 1025 -1037.
  • Kınık, B. (2018). An analysis of the impact Montessori-based individualized education program has on the problem-solving skills of children who need special education. (Unpublished master dissertation). Abant İzzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey.
  • Lam, C. M. (2011). Continuing Lipman's and Sharp's pioneering work on philosophy for children: using Harry to foster critical thinking in Hong Kong students. Educational Research and Evaluation, 18(2), 187-203.
  • Lipman, M. (1996). Natasha: Vygotskian dialogues. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Lone, J. M. (2012). The Philosophical Child. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  • Millett, S. & Tapper, A. (2012). Benefits of collaborative philosophical inquiry in schools. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 44(5), 546-567. Advance online publication. doi:10.1111/j.14695812.2010.00727.x.
  • Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı (2013). Okul öncesi eğitim programı (36-72 aylık çocuklar için). Ankara: MEB.
  • Mutlu, E. (2010). Investigating the thinking levels of children in early childhood period (60-72 months) and attitudes of preschool teachers related to thinking education. (Unpublished master dissertation). Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale, Turkey.
  • Naseri, S., Gorjian, Z., Ebrahimi, M. R. & Niakan, M. (2017). Critical thinking in P4C (Philosophy for children) educators: An intervention study. International Journal of Scientific Study, 5(7), 108-113.
  • Oğuz, V. & Köksal Akyol, A. (2015). Problem-Solving Skills Scale (PSSS) Validity and Reliability. Çukurova University Faculty of Education Journal, 44(1), 105-122.
  • Okur, M. (2008). Effects of philosophy for children on social skills that are: assertiveness, self-control and cooperation at children of six years old. (Unpublished master dissertation). Marmara University, İstanbul, Turkey.
  • Rahdar, A., Pourghaz, A. & Marziyeh, A. (2018). The impact of teaching philosophy for children on critical openness and reflective skepticism in developing critical thinking and self efficacy. International Journal of Instruction, 11(3), 539-556.
  • Seifi, G. M. Y., Shaghagni, F. & Kalantari, M. S. (2011). Efficacy of philosophy for children program (P4C) on self-esteem and problem solving abilities of girls. Journal of Apllied Psychology, 5(2), 66-83.
  • Sigurborsdottir, I. (1998). Philosophy with children in Foldaborg: Development project in Foldaborg, a preschool in Reykjavik for children from 1-6 years. International Journal of Early Childhood, 30(1), 14.
  • Taş, I. (2017). The effects of philosophy for children on theory of mind and creativity of 48-72 month-old children. (Unpublished master dissertation). Çukurova University, Adana, Turkey.
  • Tok, E. & Sevinç, M. (2010). The effects of thinking skills education on the critical thinking and problem solving skills of preschool teacher candidates. Pamukkale University Journal of Education, 27, 67-82.
  • Topping, K. J. & Trickey, S. (2015). Philosophy for children: short and long term effects. In R. Wegerif, L. Li & J. C. Kaufman (Eds.), The Routledge International Handbook of Research on Teaching Thinking (pp.103-112). Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.
  • Trickey, S. & Topping, K. J. (2004). ‘Philosophy for children’: a systematic review. Research Papers in Education, 19 (3), 365-380. Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/0267152042000248016.
  • Tümkaya, S. & Gülaçtı, F. (2010). Erken çocukluk eğitimi. Ankara: Nobel.
  • UNESCO (2007). Philosophy a school of freedom. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.
  • Valitalo, R. (2018). The philosophical classroom. University of Oulu, Faculty of Education, Oulu.
  • Vansieleghem, N. & Kennedy, D. (2011). What is philosophy for children, what is philosophy with children- after Matthew Lipman?. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 45(2),171-182.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Sema IŞIKLAR>
TC MİLLİ EĞİTİM BAKANLIĞI ÇANAKKALE, EĞİTİM ENSTİTÜSÜ
0000-0002-4445-1933
Türkiye


Yasemin ABALI ÖZTÜRK> (Primary Author)
ÇANAKKALE ONSEKİZ MART ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-1961-0557
Türkiye

Publication Date March 15, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1

Cite

APA Işıklar, S. & Abalı Öztürk, Y. (2022). The Effect of Philosophy for Children (P4C) Curriculum on Critical Thinking through Philosophical Inquiry and Problem Solving Skills . International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research , 9 (1) , 130-142 . DOI: 10.33200/ijcer.942575

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