Yıl 2020, Cilt 7 , Sayı 2, Sayfalar 212 - 225 2020-12-30

Integrating L1 into Grammar Teaching as a Remedy for Learners’ Unresponsiveness in an ESP Classroom: An Action Research

Handan ÇELİK [1]


In this study, the researcher had a group of unresponsive learners taking a year-long English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course in Banking and Finance Department. After the detection of the problem, unresponsiveness, one-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with the learners (N=8) to find the reasons of it, and what they needed accordingly. Data analysis showed they majorly needed Turkish- (L1), which was restricted to the teaching of grammar as they found most beneficial to their learning. Thus, use of L1 for explicit grammar teaching which proceeded schema building plus implicit inferring was examined to see if and how it remedied their unresponsiveness. Systematic data collection included the learners’ end-of-course written reflections (N=40) and another round of one-on-one semi-structured interviews (N=7) to further elicit their views about teaching grammar through L1. The results revealed positive evaluations regarding the benefits of L1 upon more and better input comprehension, vocabulary and grammatical knowledge development, and awareness regarding language learning. They also reported feeling less anxious and stressed, which encouraged their willingness to communicate and participate. Thus, the results verify judicious role of L1 as a scaffold to decrease affective barriers and increase comprehension in language learning.

action research, English for specific purposes, teaching grammar, unresponsive learners, use of L1
  • Akkakoson, S. (2016). Speaking anxiety in English conversation classroom among Thai students. Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction, 13, 63-82.
  • Ali, A. D. (2020). Implementing action research in EFL/ESL classrooms: a systematic review of literature 2010-2019. Systematic Practice and Action Research, 33, 341-362.
  • Auerbach, E. R. (1993). Reexamining English only in the ESL classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 27 (1), 1-18.
  • Awan, M. A., & Sipra, M. A. (2015). A ‘judicious’ use of L1 in TL classroom: Socio-political, psychological and functional dimensions. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 6 (5), 16-21.
  • Berning, B. S. (2016). Can’t I speak Japanese? The use of students’ L1 as a cognitive tool for collaborative writing tasks in a Japanese EFL context. (Unpublished MA Thesis). Hamline University, Saint Paul, Minnesota.
  • Bismilla, V. (2011). Creating space for students’ mother tongues in college classrooms. Journal of Global Citizenship & Equity Education, 1(1), 60-95.
  • Bledsoe, T. S., & Baskin, J. J. (2014). Recognizing student fear: The elephant in the classroom. College Teaching, 62, 32-41.
  • Boustani, K. (2019). The correlation between translation equivalence, as a vocabulary learning strategy, and Tunisian EFL learners’ speaking anxiety. Languages, 4(19), 1-24. Brooks-Lewis, K. A. (2009). Adult learners’ perceptions of the incorporation of their L1 in foreign language teaching and learning. Applied Linguistics, 30(2), 216-235.
  • Brown, H. D. & Abeywickrama, P. (2010). Language assessment. Principles and classroom practices (2nd ed.). New York: Pearson-Longman.
  • Bruen, J., & Kelly, N. (2014). Using a shared L1 to reduce cognitive overload and anxiety levels in the L2 classroom. The Language Learning Journal, 45(3), 368-381.
  • Burns, A. (2009). Action research in second language teacher education. In A. Burns & J. C. Richards (Eds.), Second language teacher education (289-297). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Butzkamm, W. (2003). We only learn language once. The role of the mother tongue in FL classrooms: death of a dogma. The Language Learning Journal, 28(1), 29-39.
  • Cepon, S. (2016). Teachers’ and students’ perspectives on the reasons for speaking anxiety in English for Specific Purposes. ESP Today Journal of English for Specific Purposes at Tertiary Level, 4(2), 184-201.
  • Cheng, W. (2015). A case study of action research on communicative language teaching. Journal of Interdisciplinary Mathematics, 18(6), 705-717.
  • Creswell, J. W. (2009). The analysis of qualitative data. In K. F. Punch (Ed.), Introduction to research methods in education (169-205). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
  • Cuartas Alvarez, L. F. (2014). Selective use of mother tongue to enhance students’ English learning processes … Beyond the same assumptions. PROFILE: Issues in teachers’ professional development, 16(1), 137-151.
  • Çelik, S. (2008). Opening the door: An examination of mother tongue use in foreign language classrooms. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 34, 75-85.
  • Debreli, E. & Oyman, N. (2016). Students’ preferences on the use of mother tongue in English as a Foreign language classrooms: is it the time to re-examine English-only policies? English Language Teaching, 9(1), 148-162.
  • Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Du. Y. (2016). The use of first and second language in Chinese University EFL classrooms. Singapore: Springer
  • Ellis, R. (2012). Language teaching research & language pedagogy. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Fromkin, V., Rodman, R., & Hyams, N. (2007). An introduction to language (8th ed.). Boston: Thomson Wadsworth.
  • Fush, P. I., & Ness, L. R. (2015). Are we there yet? Data saturation in qualitative research. The Qualitative Report, 20(9), 1408-1416.
  • Gass, S. M., & Selinker, L. (2008). Second language acquisition. An introductory course. New York: Routledge.
  • Giacobbe, J. (1992). A cognitive view of the role of L1 in the L2 acquisition process. Second Language Research, 8(3), 232-250.
  • Jan, C., Li, B., & Lin, C. (2014). The use of the mother tongue in Chinese EFL classrooms. Journal of China University of Science and Technology, 58, 161-180.
  • Jingxia, L. (2010). Teachers’ code-switching to the L1 in EFL classroom. The Open Applied Linguistics Journal, 3, 10-23.
  • Johnson, K. E. (2009). Second language teacher education. A sociocultural perspective. New York: Routledge.
  • Iglesias, L. M. A. (2016). Students’ opinions about the use of L1 in an intermediate level course. (MA dissertation). University of St Mark and St John, Plymouth, UK.
  • İnal, S., & Turhanlı, I. (2019). Teachers’ opinions on the use of L1 in EFL classes. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 15(3), 861-875.
  • Inan, S. (2016). Teachers’ use of L1 in young learner EFL classrooms in Turkey. (MA dissertation). Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.
  • Kayaoğlu, M. N. (2015). Teacher researchers in action research in a heavily centralized education system. Educational Action Research, 23(2), 140-161.
  • Krashen, S. (2004). Applying the comprehension hypothesis: some suggestions. Paper presented at 13th International Symposium and Book Fair on Language Teaching (English Teachers Association of the Republic of China), Taipei, Taiwan, November 13.
  • Lebak, K., & Tinsley, R. (2010). Can inquiry and reflection be contagious? Science teachers, students, and action research. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 21, 953-970. Lew, A. W. M. (2015). Input for the second language classroom: Some innovations and insights. Teachers College, Columbia University Working Papers for TESOL & Applied Linguistics, 15(2), 54-56.
  • Lida, T. (2014). A study on the roles of L1 and L2 in foreign language classroom. Language awareness, language planning, and translanguaging, 31, 1-15.
  • Luchini, P., & Rosello, A. (2007). Developing learners’ oral communicative language abilities: A collaborative action research project in Argentina. The Journal of Asia TEFL, 4(4), 245-271.
  • Madrinan, M. S. (2014). The use of first language in the second language classroom: A support for second language acquisition. Gist Education and Learning Research Journal, 9, 50-66.
  • Mason, M. (2010). Sample size and saturation in PhD studies using qualitative interviews. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 11(3). Online available at http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/1428/3027
  • Mede, E., Tutal, C., Ayaz, D., Çalışır, K. Y., & Akın, Ş. (2014). The effects of language transfer in Turkish EFL learners. ELT Research Journal, 3(2), 70-83.
  • Miles, R. (2004). Evaluating the use of L1 in the English classroom. (MA dissertation). University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
  • Moeller, A. J., & Roberts, A. (2013). Keeping it in the target language. Faculty Publications: Department of Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education, 178, 21-38.
  • Nation, P. (2003). The role of first language in foreign language learning. Asian EFL Journal, 5(2), 1-8.
  • Oxford, R. (2001). Integrated skills in the ESL/EFL classroom. Eric Document ED456670. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED456670
  • Öztürk, G., & Gürbüz, N. (2014). Speaking anxiety among Turkish EFL learners: the case at a state university. Journal of Language and Linguistics Studies, 10(1), 1-17.
  • Paker, T., & Karaağaç, Ö. (2015). The use and functions of mother tongue in EFL classes. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 199, 111-119.
  • Paltridge, B., & Starfield, S. (2013). The handbook of English for specific purposes. (1st Ed.). West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing.
  • Rainey, I. (2000). Action research and the English as a foreign language practitioner: time to take stock. Educational Action Research, 8(1), 65-91.
  • Riasati, M. J. (2018). Willingness to speak English among foreign language learners: A causal model. Cogent Education, 5, 1-17.
  • Saldana, J. (2009). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications.
  • Salı, P. (2014). An analysis of the teachers’ use of L1 in Turkish classrooms. System, 42, 308-318.
  • Savaşçı, M. (2014). Why are some students reluctant to use L2 in EFL speaking classes? An action research at tertiary level. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 2682-2686.
  • Sinclair, A. (1986). Metalinguistic knowledge and language development. Advances in Psychology, 39, 609-627.
  • Subaşı, G. (2010). What are the main sources of Turkish EFL students’ anxiety in oral practice? Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, 1(2), 29-49.
  • Szendröi, I. (2010). Teacher talk in the ESP classroom. The results of a pilot observation study conducted in the Tourism context. WoPaLP, 4, 39-59.
  • Takkaç Tulgar, A. (2018). Speaking anxiety of foreign learners of Turkish in target context. International Online Journal of Education and Teaching, 5(2), 313-332.
  • Tatar, S. (2005). Classroom participation by international students: The case of Turkish graduate students. Journal of Studies in International Education, 9(4), 337-355.
  • Teng, F. (2019). Retention of new words learned incidentally from reading: Word exposure frequency, L1 marginal glosses, and their combination. Language Teaching Research, 1-28.
  • Timuçin, M., & Baytar, İ. (2015). The functions of the use of L1: Insights from an EFL classroom. Kastamonu Education Journal, 23(1), 241-252.
  • Turnbull, M. (2001). There is a role for the L1 in foreign and second language teaching, But …” Canadian Modern Language Review, 57(4), 531-540.
  • Turnbull, B. (2018). The potential impact of cultural and educational background on foreign language teachers’ use of the L1. The Journal of Language Teaching and Learning, 8(1), 53-70.
  • Usadiati, W. (2009). Contribution of L1 in EFL teaching. Kata, 11(2), 171-184.
  • Uyar, Y. (2012). Using L1 to enhance grammar learning and having English only policy in EFL classes. Eric Document ED538967 Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED538967.pdf
  • Uztosun, M. S., Skinner, N., & Cadorath, J. (2018). An action research study into the role of student negotiation in enhancing perceived student engagement during English speaking classes at university level in Turkey. Educational Action Research, 26(1), 106-126.
  • Uztosun, M. S., Skinner, N., & Cadorath, J. (2014). An action research study designed to implement student negotiation to improve speaking classroom practice in Turkey. Educational Action Research, 22(4), 488-504.
  • Xie, Q. (2017). Investigating the target language use in and outside business English classrooms for non-English major undergraduates at a Chinese University. Cogent Education, 4, 1-16.
  • Yavuz, F. (2012). The attitudes of English teachers about the use of L1 in the teaching of L2. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 4339-4344.
  • Yürekli Kaynardağ, A. (2016). Shall we forget about L1 when teaching English? Ankara Üniversitesi Tömer Dil Dergisi, 167(2), 5-14.
  • Zhouyuan, Y. (2016). The analysis about the factors of silence in college English classroom. Studies in Literature and Language, 12(5), 105-110.
Birincil Dil en
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Articles
Yazarlar

Orcid: 0000-0001-8041-6062
Yazar: Handan ÇELİK (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: Trabzon Üniversitesi, Fatih Eğitim Fakültesi, İngiliz Dili Eğitimi ABD
Ülke: Turkey


Tarihler

Yayımlanma Tarihi : 30 Aralık 2020

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ijcer704576, journal = {International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research}, issn = {}, eissn = {2148-3868}, address = {}, publisher = {Mustafa AYDIN}, year = {2020}, volume = {7}, pages = {212 - 225}, doi = {10.33200/ijcer.704576}, title = {Integrating L1 into Grammar Teaching as a Remedy for Learners’ Unresponsiveness in an ESP Classroom: An Action Research}, key = {cite}, author = {Çeli̇k, Handan} }
APA Çeli̇k, H . (2020). Integrating L1 into Grammar Teaching as a Remedy for Learners’ Unresponsiveness in an ESP Classroom: An Action Research . International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research , 7 (2) , 212-225 . DOI: 10.33200/ijcer.704576
MLA Çeli̇k, H . "Integrating L1 into Grammar Teaching as a Remedy for Learners’ Unresponsiveness in an ESP Classroom: An Action Research" . International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research 7 (2020 ): 212-225 <http://ijcer.net/tr/pub/issue/58098/704576>
Chicago Çeli̇k, H . "Integrating L1 into Grammar Teaching as a Remedy for Learners’ Unresponsiveness in an ESP Classroom: An Action Research". International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research 7 (2020 ): 212-225
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Integrating L1 into Grammar Teaching as a Remedy for Learners’ Unresponsiveness in an ESP Classroom: An Action Research AU - Handan Çeli̇k Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.33200/ijcer.704576 DO - 10.33200/ijcer.704576 T2 - International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 212 EP - 225 VL - 7 IS - 2 SN - -2148-3868 M3 - doi: 10.33200/ijcer.704576 UR - https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.704576 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research Integrating L1 into Grammar Teaching as a Remedy for Learners’ Unresponsiveness in an ESP Classroom: An Action Research %A Handan Çeli̇k %T Integrating L1 into Grammar Teaching as a Remedy for Learners’ Unresponsiveness in an ESP Classroom: An Action Research %D 2020 %J International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research %P -2148-3868 %V 7 %N 2 %R doi: 10.33200/ijcer.704576 %U 10.33200/ijcer.704576
ISNAD Çeli̇k, Handan . "Integrating L1 into Grammar Teaching as a Remedy for Learners’ Unresponsiveness in an ESP Classroom: An Action Research". International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research 7 / 2 (Aralık 2020): 212-225 . https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.704576
AMA Çeli̇k H . Integrating L1 into Grammar Teaching as a Remedy for Learners’ Unresponsiveness in an ESP Classroom: An Action Research. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research. 2020; 7(2): 212-225.
Vancouver Çeli̇k H . Integrating L1 into Grammar Teaching as a Remedy for Learners’ Unresponsiveness in an ESP Classroom: An Action Research. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research. 2020; 7(2): 212-225.
IEEE H. Çeli̇k , "Integrating L1 into Grammar Teaching as a Remedy for Learners’ Unresponsiveness in an ESP Classroom: An Action Research", International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, c. 7, sayı. 2, ss. 212-225, Ara. 2021, doi:10.33200/ijcer.704576