International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research <p>International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research contains original scientific publications. All published papers, except editorial manuscripts, are subject to a double blind peer review process.<br /> <br />The aim of the journal is to contribute to science by publishing high quality publications of scientific importance. For this purpose, research articles, reviews, case reports and letters to the editor are published. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research (IJCER) is open to all kinds of papers related to educational sciences. In particularly, papers on teaching and teacher education, educational administration, counselling and student services, rural education and small schools, elementary and early childhood education, higher education, adult-career and vocational education, assessment and evaluation are welcome. Papers on science, reading, English and communication education, disabilities and gifted education, mathematics and environmental education, social studies and social science education, and urban education are also considered for publication. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research is an independent, double-blind peer-reviewed, open access and online journal that aims to publish papers in all fields related to educational sciences. Papers should describe original data that have not been previously published or submitted for publication elsewhere. Manuscripts that are deemed suitable for the International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research submission rules and the scope of the journal are sent to at least two reviewer who are experts in their fields for scientific evaluation. The members of the Editorial Board of the International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research discuss the suitability of the manuscript and then take into account the reviewers comments on each submission. The final decision for all submitted manuscripts rests with the Editor-in-Chief. The publication language of the journal is English. Papers must suitable with grammatical rules. For this reason, after all the evaluation processes are completed, the papers should be proofreading. Proofreading is required for all articles to be published in the journal. A paper without proofreading will not be accepted for publication. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research publishes four issues in a year. The issues will be published in March, June, September, and December. Authors must submit an ethics committee approval document for articles published in IJCER (only for necessary papers). The Editorial Board of the International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research is committed to complying with the criteria of the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">International Council of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">World Association of Medical Editors (WAME)</a> and <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)</a>.<br /><strong>Subject Category:</strong><br />• Social Sciences<br /><strong>Science Area:</strong><br />• Education &amp; Educational Research<br /><strong>Keywords:</strong><br />• Adult-Career, and Vocational Education,<br />• Assessment and Evaluation,<br />• Counseling and Student Services,<br />• Disabilities and Gifted Education,<br />• Educational Management,<br />• Elementary and Early Childhood Education,<br />• Higher Education,<br />• Reading, English, and Communication Educational ,<br />• Rural Education and Small Schools,<br />• Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education,<br />• Social Studies and Social Science Education<br />• Teaching and Teacher Education,<br />• Urban Education<br /><strong>Publication Language</strong><br />Full Text Publication Language:<br />• Primary Language: English</p> <p><strong>Content Written in English &amp; Latin Alphabet:</strong><br />• Article Title: English<br />• Author Name: English (in Latin Alphabet)<br />• Author Address: English (in Latin Alphabet)<br />• Keywords: English &amp; English<br />• Bibliography: English (in Latin alphabet)<br /><strong>Full Text: English (in Latin Alphabet)</strong><br /><strong>Publication Period</strong><br />Four issues in the year (March, June, September &amp; December)<br /><strong>Article Submissions</strong><br />Submitted manuscripts must be appropriate to the purpose and scope of the journal. Original, unpublished manuscripts that are not in the evaluation process in another journal and whose content and submission have been approved by each author are accepted for evaluation.<br /><strong>Audience</strong><br />The target audience is members of the profession, teachers, school administrators, experts, researchers, master's and doctoral students as well as students related to this field with all fields of educational sciences. It aims to contribute to the spread of continuous professional development and research culture.<br /><strong>Fee Policy</strong><br />The publication of articles in the journal and the execution of article processes are not subject to any fee. No processing or submission fee is charged for articles submitted to the journal or accepted for publication. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research does not accept sponsorship and advertisement in accordance with its publication policies. All expenses of the International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research are covered by the publisher.<br /><strong>Copyright</strong><br />The copyrights of the works published in International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research belong to their authors. Authors consent to the publication of their intellectual work by International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)</a> licence.<br /><strong>Originality of Articles</strong><br />International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research does not accept papers previously published elsewhere.</p> <p>Update: 08.04.2024</p> en-US (Assoc. Prof. Muhammed Zincirli) (Secretary) Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 60 Measurement invairance and construct validity of the Turkish version of the learner autonomy scale in a sample of high and secondary school students <p>The goal of this research is to adapt the 24-item "Learner Autonomy Scale" developed by Sereti and Giossos (2018) in higher education samples into Turkish by examining the psychometric properties of high school and secondary school samples, and to determine whether these groups are equivalent in terms of measurement invariance. The scale was applied in high school (n = 475) and secondary school (n = 395) samples consisting of 870 students. Different from the original four-factor scale form, EFA applied to both groups revealed a two-factor (factor load range: .308-.775) and 21-item. Correlation values (r = .209-.392, p˂.001) indicate that the factors are not strongly related. The factors produced adequate internal consistency coefficients (α = .706-.866; ω = .708-.871) and were validated by meeting the fit indices accepted in the literature for CFA. Measurement invariance tests revealed strong invariance for the structural and metric tests and partial invariance for the scalar test in high school and secondary school samples. More research is needed to determine why the intersections of items 19, 20, and 21 are not invariant. The main contribution to "learner autonomy" in this study is the adaptation and justification of a valid and reliable measurement tool for determining autonomy in the adolescent age group. The use of the adapted scale in different educational environments and in the examination of "autonomy" by adapting it specific to the field (science, mathematics, etc.) will provide important implications for further theoretical studies.</p> Emrullah Deniz, Hilal Kazu Copyright (c) 2024 Emrullah Deniz, Hilal Kazu Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The Effect of Digital Game Design Supported Coding Education on Gifted Students' Scratch Achievement and Self-Efficacy <p>Coding tools that use blocks to create programs are popular among kids and play a key role in learning how to code. The effectiveness of the coding courses that are available nowadays depends on how well the tools match the students’ needs. The aim of this study is to reveal the impact of digital game design supported coding education with Scratch on gifted students' Scratch academic achievement and self-efficacy. The research was conducted with one-group pre-test post-test experimental design. The sample of the study consists of 40 3rd grade gifted students studying at a Science and Art Center in Türkiye. Scratch achievement test and Scratch self-efficacy scale were used as pre-test and post-test before and after the training. The data of the study were analyzed with dependent groups t-test. Post-test scores of the students obtained from Scratch achievement and self-efficacy scale showed a statistically significant increases compared to the pre-test scores. It was revealed that digital game design supported education contributed positively to students' Scratch achievement and self-efficacy in coding.</p> İbrahim Bozan, Erdal Taşlıdere Copyright (c) 2024 İbrahim Bozan, Erdal Taşlıdere Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Argumentation and discourse analysis in the future intelligent systems of essay grading <p>Intelligent systems of essay grading constitute important tools for educational technologies. They can significantly replace the manual scoring efforts and provide instructional feedback as well. These systems typically include two main parts: feature extractor and automatic grading model. The latter is generally based on computational and artificial intelligent methods. In this work, we focus on the features extraction part. More precisely, we focus on argumentation and discourse related-features, which constitute high level features. We discuss some state-of-the-art systems and analyse how argumentation and discourse analysis are used for extracting features and providing feedback.</p> Naima Debbar Copyright (c) 2024 Naima Debbar Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0300 The Integration of 21st Century Skills into Secondary School English Classes and the Challenges faced by Teachers <p>The aim of this study is to examine the utilization of 21st century skills by secondary school English language teachers and to investigate whether their background has a role in using these skills. The study also aims to shed light on the challenges teachers face when integrating these skills into their teaching practices. A mixed-methods research design, which incorporates the scale and interviews, was used to accomplish the aims of the study. The data were obtained online using 21st Century Teaching and Learning scale developed by Hixson, Ravitz, and Whisman (2012) and semi-structured interviews. A total of 119 teachers were reached using convenience and snowball sampling methods, with 26 of them participating in the interviews. The quantitative findings of the study showed that teachers used 21st century skills approximately once or three times a month, and the most used skill was using technology as a tool for learning, while local connections were the least. According to the t-test results, a significant difference was found in the use of these skills between private and public school teachers, with private school teachers employing these skills more frequently than their public school counterparts. Furthermore, it was revealed that teachers who received 21st century skills training integrated some of the 21st century skills into their lessons more often than those who did not. In addition, it was found that years of experience played a role in the implementation of these skills. According to the post-hoc test, less experienced teachers integrated 21st century skills more frequently than more experienced teachers. On the other hand, the teachers’ educational backgrounds did not show any significant difference in using these skills. According to the findings obtained from the content analysis of the interviews, the lack of qualified in-per service training on 21st century skills, poor curricula, lack of required materials and infrastructure, and unsupportive attitudes of the administrators were the challenges encountered by teachers.</p> Yeliz Bolat, Selma Deneme Copyright (c) 2024 Yeliz Bolat, Selma Deneme Wed, 20 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Explanation of subjective well-being from school burnout or sensation seeking: which is the biggest predictor for religious students <p>The purpose of this study was to prove the relationship between positive and negative emotions from subjective well being with school burnout and sensation seeking in religious students.. This is a survey or non-experimental study using a cross-sectional technique on a sample of religious students (n = 205) taken by convenience sampling. Data collection was taken with the classical arrangement of each class in the school after approval of research procedures and ethical codes from the research institute. Data were taken from the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule scale, School Burnout Inventory and Brief Sensation-seeking. The results in this study explain that positive emotions have a negative relationship with school burnout but simultaneously a stronger positive relationship than negative emotions with school burnout. Then sensation seeking is positively related to positive emotions and it is also positively related to negative emotions, these results also provide recommendations for further research on whether sensation seeking can be a mediation to increase or decrease the relationship of two other variables such as the relationship between positive and negative variables because it supports positive and negative emotions.</p> M. Fadli Nugraha Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Exploring the Impact of SCOBA Creation on Language Learners' Reading and Reflective Thinking Skills in Concept-Based Reading Curriculum <p style="font-weight: 400;">A new reading curriculum incorporating the principles of concept-based instruction and reading strategy instruction was designed and implemented for a previous study. Concept-based instruction was compared with reading strategy instruction to determine the impact of the new curriculum on language learners' reading and reflective thinking skills. The data revealed that the concept-based group performed better in reflective reading and thinking skills.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">The new curriculum involves the creation of a Schema of a Complete Orienting Basis of an Action (SCOBA) during reflection sessions. To explore the necessity of SCOBA creation, an experimental study with two groups was conducted, where only one group created a SCOBA. Both groups received concept-based reading instruction and were compared based on their reading, reflective reading, and reflective thinking skills. The data revealed that the groups performed similarly in reading and reflective reading skills, but the SCOBA group performed better in reflective thinking skills. The study sheds light on the importance of incorporating reflective thinking activities, such as SCOBA creation, in concept-based reading instruction.</p> Ayşe Tokaç Kan Copyright (c) 2024 Ayşe Tokaç Kan Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0300 An Examination of How Toxic Leadership Behaviours of School Principals Relate to Teachers' Perceived Stress <p>The study examines how toxic leadership behaviours of school principals relate to teachers' perceived stress. It is a correlational survey model, and the sample consists of 278 primary and secondary school teachers. We collected the data with the Perceived Stress Scale and Toxic Leadership Scale. The findings show that gender does not cause a statistical difference in perceived stress and all dimensions of toxic leadership. Stress levels of branch teachers are higher than those of primary school teachers, with a statistically significant difference. The perception of branch teachers in ignorance, self-interest, and negative mental state of toxic leadership is significantly higher than classroom teachers. A moderately significant positive relationship exists between teachers' perceptions of stress and all dimensions of toxic leadership. 20% of teachers' perceptions of stress are explained by toxic leadership. The negative mental state of school principals is a significant predictor of teachers' perceptions of stress.</p> Fatma Balaban , Ayşe Kazancı-Tınmaz Copyright (c) 2024 Fatma Balaban , Ayşe Tınmaz Kazancı Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0300 A Needs Analysis Study on Interdisciplinary Gender Equality Education: Turkish Context <p>The purpose of this research was to identify the needs for gender equality education. For this purpose, the views of mathematics, science and information technology teachers on the current situation of gender equality in schools were determined. In addition, the awareness of sixth, seventh and eighth grade middle school students on gender equality was examined. This study was a descriptive research conducted in a qualitative context. In data collection, interview form on teachers’ views and written view form on students’ awareness about gender equality were used. Research data were collected in the spring semester of the 2017-2018 academic year. The deductive analysis method was used in the analysis of the data. In line with the results of the research, it is thought that an interdisciplinary gender equality education will be beneficial to improve students' awareness.</p> Buket Turhan Türkkan, Betül Karaduman, Nihan Arslan Namlı, Memet Karakuş Copyright (c) 2024 Buket Turhan Türkkan, Betül Karaduman, Nihan Arslan Namlı, Memet Karakuş Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0300 English as a Foreign Language Teachers' Technology Professional Development Needs <p>This study examined the Technological, Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) professional development needs of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Teachers. EFL teachers participated in semi-structured interviews from seven primary schools in a middle-sized urban school district in the east part of China. The results indicated that though primary EFL teachers in China have basic technological knowledge to support teaching, they are lacking appropriate knowledge and training, particularly in areas of TPACK related to EFL teaching. Results from the present study indicate that there is a need for PD that helps EFL teachers integrate technology in teaching reading, speaking, and writing.</p> Xuan Zhou, Yolanda Padron, Hersh Waxman Copyright (c) 2024 Xuan Zhou, Yolanda Padron, Hersh Waxman Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0300 Self-Regulation Skills and Peer Preferences in Preschool Children <p>The main purpose of this study is to detect the predictive impact of self-regulation skills on peer relationships in preschool children. The participants consisted of 165 children of Turkish extraction (between the ages of 5-6). 81 of them were girls and 84 were boys. Self-Regulation Skills Scale for Children aged 4-6 (Teacher Form) and sociometry technique based on peer nomination were utilized. The study results asserted that young children’s self-regulation variables (inhibitory control, attention, working memory) influenced their levels of being positively and significantly liked by peers. Moreover, young children’s self-regulation variables (inhibitory control, attention, working memory) affected their levels of being negatively and significantly disliked by peers. Also, inhibitory control, attention, and working memory significantly predicted the levels of social preference.</p> Belgin Liman Copyright (c) 2024 Belgin Liman Mon, 25 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0300