Perceived Teacher Informal Relationship Scale: A scale development and measurement invariance study.

Informal Relationship Scale

Abstract views: 115 / PDF downloads: 107




Formal relationship, Informal relationship, Scale development, Factorization, Measurement invariance


This work is intended to develop a measuring tool for determining teacher perception of informal relationships. The pool of item created by researchers through a literature review has been presented with expert assessment of the validity of content, face and meaning, and a draft scale form has been created by making necessary revisions to the feedbacks. The draft form was applied to 214 teachers working in the central districts of Diyarbakır, exploratory factor analysis was made on the obtained data set and a six-dimensional scale structure consisting of 20 items was determined. In order to verify this structure, data were collected from 306 teachers working in the central districts of Diyarbakir, and the six-factor scale structure was confirmed based on the goodness of fit values estimated by confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, AVE (Average Variance Extracted), root of AVE, composite reliability and correlation among factors were checked, and it was seen that the scale provided the convergent and discriminant validity conditions as a result of the values reached. For reliability analysis, Cronbach's Alpha coefficients and composite reliability values were checked together, and it was seen that the scale had sufficient reliability values. The measurement invariance of the scale was tested according to the categories of gender (female-male), marital status (married-single), level of employment (primary school, secondary school and high school) and seniority (1-10 years, 11-20 years, 21 and above) and the formality of the scale, metric, scalar and strict invariance conditions were found to satisfy. Consequently, it was concluded that the scale in question is a valid and reliable scale, which can be used to measure teacher perception of informal relationships.


Ackermann, F. & Eden, C. (2011). Strategic management of stakeholders: theory and practice, Long Range Planning, 44 , 179-196.

Akbulut, Y. (2010). SPSS applications in social sciences . Istanbul: Ideal Culture Publishing.

Aydin, M. (1994). Education management . Hatipoglu Publications.

Berman, E.M., West, J.P., Maurice, W., & Richter, N. (2002). Workplace relations: Friendship patterns and consequences (According to managers). Public Administration Review, 62 (2), 217-230.

Bursalioglu, Z. (1994). New structure and behavior in school management . PegemA.

Byrne, U.N. (2008). Testing for multigroup equivalence of a measuring instrument: A walk through the process. Psychothema , 20 (4), 872–882.

Chen, F.F. (2007). Sensitivity of goodness of fit indexes to lack of measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling , 14, 464–504. 10.1080/ 10705510701301834

Crabtree, S. (2004). Getting Personal in the Workplace: Are Negative Relationships Squelching Productivity in Your Company? Gallup Management Journal, June

Çokluk, O., Şekercioğlu, G. & Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2010). Applications of SPSS and LISREL in multivariate statistics for social sciences . PegemA

Dyer, JH, & Singh, H. (1998). The relational view: Cooperative strategy and sources of interorganizational competitive advantage. Academy of management review , 23 (4), 660-679.

Dymitrowski, A., Fonfara, K., & Deszczyński, B. (2019). Informal relationships in a company's internationalization process. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing .

Ergen, E. (2011). Turning the informal communication network of an organization into a knowledge tool through communities of practice. City College, International Faculty of The University of Sheffield, Thessaloniki, Greece , 1-13.

Fay, M.J. (2011). Informal communication of co‐workers: a thematic analysis of messages. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal . 6 (3), 212-229.

Gurbuz, S. (2019). Structural equation modeling with AMOS, Seçkin Yayıncılık.

Hair, J.D, Anderson, RE, Tatham, RL, & Black, WC (1998). Multivariate date analysis . New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Hair, J.F., Black, WC, Babin, BJ & Anderson, RE (2014). Multivariate data analysis (7nd ed.). Pearson Education

Hazar, S., & Saylık, A. (2021). The supervisory roles of school principals as a predictor of teachers' organizational socialization. Abant İzzet Baysal University Journal of the Faculty of Education , 21 (3), 1006-1022.

Hoy, W.K. & Miskel, CG (2010). Educational administration: theory, research and practice . Translation Ed. Selahattin Turan. Nobel Publication Distribution

Hu, L. & Bentler, PM (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6 , 1-55. 10.1080/10705519909540118

Kalayci, S. (2010). Factor analysis . S. Kalaycı, (Ed.), in SPSS applied multivariate statistical techniques (234-255), Asil Yayın Dağıtım

Katz, D. & Kahn, RL (1971) Social psychology of organizations , Translators. (trans. Halil Can, Yavuz Bayar), TODAIE Publication

Kuipers, K.J. (2009). Formal and informal network coupling and its relationship to workplace attachment. Sociological Perspectives , 52 (4), 455-479.

Liau, A., Tan, T.K & Khoo, A. (2011). Scale measurement: Comparing factor analysis and variable clustering. In SAS Global Forum 352 (pp. 1-12).

Luykx, J.J, Vinkers, C.H, & Tijdink, JK (2020). Psychiatry in times of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: An imperative for psychiatrists to act now. JAMA Psychiatry , 77(11), 1097–1098.

Memduhoğlu, H.B. & Saylık, A. (2012). Developing the informal relations scale in schools and examining it in terms of some variables. Yüzüncü Yıl University Journal of the Faculty of Education , 9 (1), 1-22.

Mintzberg, H. (2015). The structuring of organizations . (Trans. Ahmet Aypay). Nobel Book.

Monge, P.R., & Contractor, N.S. (2001). Emergence of communication networks. the new handbook of organizational communication: advances in theory, research, and methods, Sage Publications, London, pp. 440-502.

Mosley, D.C, Pietri, PH, & Megginson, LC (1996). Management: Leadership in action . (5th Ed.). Harper Collins College.

Poppo, L., & Zenger, T. (2002). Do formal contracts and relational governance function as substitutes or complements?. Strategic management journal , 23 (8), 707-725.

Prell, C., Reed, M., Racin, L. & Hubacek, K. (2010). Competing structure, competing views: the role of formal and informal social structures in shaping stakeholder perceptions. Ecology and Society , 15 (4), 34-51.

Rank, ON (2008). Formal structures and informal networks: structural analysis in organizations, Scandinavian Journal of Management,24 , 145-161.

Rath, T. (2006). Vital friends: The people you can't afford to live without. PGW.

Raykov, T. (1998), A method for obtaining standard errors and confidence intervals of composite reliability for congeneric items. Applied Psychological Measurement , 22 (4), 369-374.

Shellenbarger, S. (2000) An Overlooked Toll of Job Upheavals: Valuable Friendships, Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), January 12th, B1.

Sias, P. M., Heath, R. G., Perry, T., Silva, D., & Fix, B. (2004). Narratives of workplace friendship deterioration. Journal of Social and Personal relationships, 21(3), 321-340.

Song, X., Shi, W., Ma, Y., & Yang, C. (2015). Impact of informal networks on opinion dynamics in hierarchically formal organization. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications , 436 , 916-924.

Sen, S. (2020). Structural equation modeling applications with Mplus, Nobel Publications.

Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics . Allyn and Bacon Publishing

Thompson, B. (2004). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis: Understanding concepts and applications. Washington, DC , 10694 . American Psychological Association

Tichy, N.M., Tushman, ML & Fombrun, C. (1979). Social network analysis for organizations, Academy of Management Review , 4 , 507-519.

Tschan, F., Semmer, NK, & Inversin, L. (2004). Work related and``private''social interactions at work. Social Indicators Research , 67 (1), 145-182.

Uğurlu, C. (2014). Informal communication scale: validity and reliability study. Journal of İnönü University Faculty of Education , 15 (3), 83-100.

Vandenberg, R.J. & Lance, CE (2000). A review and synthesis of the measuremant invariance literature: Suggestion, practices and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 3 (1), 4-70.

Xu, H. & Tracey, T.J. (2017). Use of multi-group confirmatory factor analysis in examining measurement invariance in counseling psychology research. The European Journal of Counseling Psychology, 6 (1), 75-82, 10.5964/ejcop.v6i1.120

Xue, J., Shen, GQ, Yang, RJ, Zafar, I., Ekanayake, EMAC, Lin, X., & Darko, A. (2020). Influence of formal and informal stakeholder relationship on megaproject performance: A case of China. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management .

Yang, R.J. & Shen, G.Q. (2014). Framework for stakeholder management in construction projects. Journal of Management in Engineering , 31 , 04014064.

Zheng, J., Roehrich, J.K. & Lewis, MA (2008). The dynamics of contractual and relational governance: evidence from long-term public–private procurement arrangements, Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 14, 43-54.

Zou, W., Kumaraswamy, M. & Chung, J. (2010). The role of informal relationships in strengthening partnerships between public and private sectors, Proceedings of the Global Innovation in Construction Conference, Loughborough University, Loughborough.




How to Cite

Demirtaş, Z., Çaçan, H., & Uslukaya, A. (2023). Perceived Teacher Informal Relationship Scale: A scale development and measurement invariance study.: Informal Relationship Scale. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 10(1), 250–261.