Wait-time in Material and Classroom Context Modes

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  • Cihat Atar




Wait-time, Conversation Analysis, classrooms modes, interactional resources, learning opportunities


This study aims to investigate wait-time, more specifically student reaction wait-time, in high school English as a foreign language classrooms with specific regard to two classroom micro-context modes (the classroom context mode and material mode). The data was collected via audio-recordings of classroom interaction in its natural context. The audio-recordings were analyzed using the principles of Conversation Analysis. The analysis of the data demonstrated that the effectiveness of student reaction wait-time is highly related to the current pedagogical goal; if the purpose is to increase learners’ involvement in classroom discourse or if it requires analytical thinking, an extended wait-time of three to five seconds is likely to enhance the learning opportunity. However, as a social process, opportunities for learning are likely to be missed if the purpose is to monitor understanding or display answers which are explicitly given in the material that is being used. In this sense, this study has implications for studies on wait-time, foreign language classroom interaction, teachers’ interactional competence, and foreign language learning contexts in general.

Author Biography

Cihat Atar

This study is partially based on the dissertation entitled Wait-time and Learning Opportunity: A Critical Study of Saudi English Language Classes by Alsaadi (2015) which was submitted to the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, the United Kingdom.

**Corresponding Author: Cihat Atar, cihat.atar@medeniyet.edu.tr, 0000-0002-5879-3432, Medeniyet University


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How to Cite

Atar, C. (2022). Wait-time in Material and Classroom Context Modes. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 6(1), 53–69. https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.542495