Development Process of “Scale for the Attitudes towards Risky Play at Early Childhood (SATRPEC) - Parent Form”

Abstract views: 192 / PDF downloads: 75


  • Nezahat Hamiden KARACA



Risky play, Early childhood,, Scale, Parents, Attitudes


In this study, it was aimed to develop Scale for the Attitudes towards Risky Play at Early Childhood (SATRPEC) for the parents whose children currently attend to a preschool institution. The sample was comprised of 742 parents whose children were attending to a nursery class or a kindergarten located in Afyonkarahisar – Turkey and affiliated to Turkish Ministry of National Education during 2018-2019 academic year. In order to develop the scale, initially a comprehensive literature review was performed. As a result of a detailed screening, a pool of 50 five-point Likert type items was created. The initial form was presented to a total number of 13 experts, i.e. five academicians, one measurement and evaluation specialist, five teachers and two parents. CVR and CVI were calculated according to expert opinions and the scale was reduced to 28 items. This form was first piloted and reliability coefficient was calculated. For construct validity, exploratory factor analysis was performed first. The construct validity of the scale was also tested by confirmatory factor analysis. The obtained values showed that the instrument was reliable and had acceptable psychometric properties.

Author Biography

Nezahat Hamiden KARACA

Corresponding Author: Nezahat Hamiden KARACA,, AFYON KOCATEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ



Adams, J. (2001). Risk. London: Routledge.

Alat, Z., Akgümüş, Ö., & Cavalı, D. (2012). Outdoor activities: Early childhood teachers’ beliefs and practices. Mersin University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 8(3), 47-62.

Alpar, R. (2012). Uygulamalı istatistik ve geçerlik-güvenirlik. Ankara: Detay Yayıncılık.

Atabey, D., Yurt. Ö. ve Ömeroğlu, E. (2009). Okul öncesi eğitim kurumları açık hava oyun alanlarının incelenmesi. Uluslararası 5. Balkan Eğitim ve Bilim Kongresi, 1- 3Ekim, Edirne (sf 651- 653).

Ayan, S. & Ulaş, M. (2015). The examination of playground equipments which are used in Turkey according to the models in the developing countries. Route Educational and Social Science Journal, 2(3), 130- 145.

Ball, D. J. (2002). Playgrounds—risks, benefits and choices. London: Health & Safety Executive (HSE) contract research report, Middlesex University.

Boyer, T.W. (2006) The development of risk-taking: a multi-perspective review. Developmental Review, 26, 291-345.

Brussoni, M., Olsen, L. L., Pike, I. & Sleet, D. A. (2012). Risky play and children’s safety: Balancing priorities for optimal child development. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9(9), 3134–3148.

Brussoni, M., Gibbons, R., Gray, C., Ishikawa, T., Sandseter, E. B. H., Bienenstock, A., & Pickett, W. (2015). What is the relationship between risky outdoor play and health in children? A systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12 (6), 6423–6454. doi:10.3390/ijerph120606423

Brussoni,M., Ishikawa,T., Brunelle,S. & Herrington,S. (2017). Landscapes for play: Effects of an intervention to promote nature-based risky play in early childhood centres. Journal of Environmental Psychology,54,139-150. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2017.11.001.

Brussoni, M., Ishikawa, T., Han, C., Pike, I., Bundy, A., Faulkner, G., & Mâsse, L. (2018). Go play outside! Effects of a risk-reframing tool on mothers’ tolerance for, and parenting practices associated with, children’s risky play: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 19(1),173.

Carver, A., Timperio, A., & Crawford, D. (2008). Playing it safe: The influence of neighbourhood safety on children’s physical activity—A review. Health & Place, 14, 217–227.

Cevher Kalburan, N. (2014). Okul öncesi dönem çocuklarının dış mekânda oyun fırsatları ve ebeveyn görüşleri. Sosyal Politika Çalışmaları Dergisi, 32, 113-135.

Cevher-Kalburan, N., & Ivrendi, A. (2015). Risky play and parenting styles. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(7), 1-12.

Chancellor, B., & Cevher-Kalburan, N. (2014). Comparing and contrasting primary school playgrounds in Turkey and Australia. International Education Journal: Comparative Perspectives, 13(2), 41-59.

Coe,H.A. (2017). Embracing risk in the Canadian woodlands: Four children’s risky play and risk-taking experiences in a Canadian Forest Kindergarten. Journal of Early Childhood Research, 15(4) 374–388.

Dweck, C. (2000). Self-Theories: their role in motivation, personality, and development. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.

Eager, D., & Little, H. (2011). Risk deficit disorder. Retrieved from:

Erbay, F., & Saltalı, N. D. (2012). Altı yaş çocuklarının günlük yaşantılarında oyunun yeri ve annelerin oyun algısı. Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Kırşehir Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi (KEFAD), 13(2), 249-264.

Field, A. (2000). Discovering statistic using SPSS for Windows. London: Thousand Oak New Delhi:Sage Publications.

Fiskum, T. (2004). Effekt av barnehagemiljø på motorisk og spatial kompetanse hos barn. En tverrsnittstudie av den motoriske og spatiale kompetansen hos barn i en friluftsbarnehage og barn i en tradisjonell barnehage [The effect of kindergarten’s environment on children’s motor and spatial competence] (Master thesis). Nord-Trøndelag University College, Norway, Levanger.

Fjørtoft, I. (2000). Landscape and playscape. Learning effects from playing in a natural environment on motor development in children (Doctoral thesis). Norwegian School of Sport Science, Norway, Oslo.

Fjørtoft,I. (2004).Landscape as playscape: the effects of natural environments on children's play and motor development. Children, Youth and Environments, 14 (2), 21-44

Güler,B.İ. & Demir, E.(2016). Okul öncesi öğretmenlerinin riskli oyunlara yönelik görüş ve algıları. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Özel Eğitim Dergisi, 17(2), 97-116

Greenfield, C. (2004). ‘Can run, play on bikes, jump the zoom slide, and play on the swings’: Exploring the value of outdoor play. Australian Journal of Early Childhood 29(2), 1–5.

Gill, T. (2007). No fear: growing up in a risk averse society. Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, London.

Greenland, P. (2010). Physical development. In T. Bruce (Ed.), Early childhood. A guide for students (pp. 188–192). London: Sage.

Harper,N.J. (2017) Outdoor risky play and healthy child development in the shadow of the “risk society”: A forest and nature school perspective, Child & Youth Services, 38(4), 318-334, DOI: 10.1080/0145935X.2017.1412825

Hofferth, S.L. (2009). Changes in American children’s time—1997 to 2003. Electron. Int. J. Time Use Res., 6, 26–47.

Karasar, N. (2005). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemi. (17. Baskı). İzmir: Nobel Yayınevi.

Kinoshita, I. (2009). Charting generational differences in conceptions and opportunities for play in a Japanese neighborhood. Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, 7, 53–77. doi:10.1080/ 15350770802629024

Kleppe,R. (2018) Characteristics of staff–child interaction in 1–3-yearolds’ risky play in early childhood education and care. Early Child Development and Care, 188(10), 1487-1501. DOI: 10.1080/03004430.2016.1273909

Knight, S (2012). Why Adventure and Why Risk in the Early Years? Childlinks, 3, 15-18.

Lester, S., &W. Russell. (2008). Play for a change. Play, policy and practice: A review of contemporary perspectives.

Little, H. & Wyver, S. (2008). Outdoor play. does avoiding the risks reduce the benefits?. Australian Journal of Early Childhood ,33 (2), 33–40.

Little, H. (2010). Finding the balance: early childhood practitioners’ views on risk, challenge and safety in outdoor play settings. Australian Association for Research in Education Conference Proceedings, Australia: AARE. 1-12.

Little, H. ve Eager, D. (2010). Risk, challenge and safety: Implications for play quality and playg¬round design. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 18(4), 497-513.

Little,H., Wyver,S. & Gibson,F. (2011) The influence of play context and adult attitudes on young children's physical risk‐taking during outdoor play. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 19(1), 113-131. DOI: 10.1080/1350293X.2011.548959

Little, H., Sandseter, E. B. H., & Wyver, S. (2012). Early childhood teachers’ beliefs about children’s risky play in Australia and Norway. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 13(4), 300–316.

Little,H. (2015) Mothers’ beliefs about risk and risk-taking in children’s outdoor play. Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning, 15(1), 24-39, DOI: 10.1080/14729679.2013.842178

Louv,R. (2008). Last child in the woods. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books

MacDougall, C., Schiller,W. & Darbyshire,P. (2009). What are our boundaries and where can we play? Perspectives from eight- to ten-year old Australian metropolitan and rural children. Early Child Development and Care 179(2), 189–204.

McFarland,L. & · Laird,S.G. (2018).Parents’ and early childhood educators’ attitudes and practices in relation to children’s outdoor risky play. Early Childhood Education Journal, 46(2),159-168. DOI 10.1007/s10643-017-0856-8

Madge, N. & Barker,J. (2007). Risk and childhood. London: risk commission: royal society for the encouragement of arts, manufactures & commerce (RSA), http://

Maller, C., Townsend, M., Pryor, A., Brown, P., & St Leger, L. (2006). Healthy nature healthy people: “contact with nature” as an upstream health promotion intervention for populations. Health Promotion International, 21 (1), 45–54. doi:10.1093/heapro/dai032

Meire, J. (2013). Over vrijbuiters en ankertijd: De tijdsbeleving van kinderen onderzocht [About freebooters and anchortime: Exploring time perception of children]. Brussel: Kind en Samenleving

Nelsen, J. Lott, L. & Glenn, S. (2002). Çocuk gelişiminde a’dan z’ye pozitif disiplin. (Çev.: M. Ersin). İstanbul: Hayay Yayıncılık.

Nikiforidou, Z. (2017) ‘It is riskier’: preschoolers’ reasoning of risky situations, European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 25(4), 612-623, DOI: 10.1080/1350293X.2017.1331075

Oktay, A. (2007). Yaşamın sihirli yılları: Okul öncesi dönem. (6. Baskı). İstanbul: Epsilon Yayıncılık.

Sandseter, E. B. H. (2007). Categorising risky play - How can we identify risk-taking in children’s play? European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 15, 237–252.

Sandseter, E. B. H. (2009a). Children’s expressions of exhilaration and fear in risky play. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 10, 92–106.

Sandseter,E.B.H. (2009b) Characteristics of risky play. Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning, 9(1), 3-21, DOI: 10.1080/14729670802702762

Sandseter, E.B.H. (2010) Scaryfunny. A qualitative study of risky play among preschool children. PhD thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

Sandseter, E.B.H. (2012). Children’s risky play in early childhood education and care. Child¬links, 3, 2-6.

Sandseter, E.B.H . (2014) Early childhood education and care practitioners' perceptions of children's risky play; examining the influence of personality and gender. Early Child Development and Care, 184(3), 434-449, DOI: 10.1080/03004430.2013.794797

Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H. & Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Test of significance and descprictive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8(2), 23-74

Schwebel, D. C.& Barton, B. K. (2005). Contributions of multiple risk factors to child injury. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 30(7), 553–561.

Stephenson, A. (2003). Physical Risk-Taking: Dangerous or Endangered?. Early Years 23 (1),35–43.

Thorndike, R.M. & Thorndike-Christ, T. (2009). Measurement and evaluation in psychology and education. Prentice Hall Publications.

Tovey, H. (2007). Playing outdoors: spaces and places, risk and challenge. Maidenhead: Open University Press

Tranter, P. & Pawson, E. (2001). Children’s access to local environments: A case study of Christchurch, New Zealand. Local Environment, 6(1), 27–48. doi:10.1080/13549830120024233

Tuğrul,B., Boz,M., Uludağ,G., Metin Aslan,Ö.,Sevimli Çelik,S. & Sözer Çapan,A.(2019). Okul öncesi dönemdeki çocukların okuldaki oyun olanaklarının incelenmesi. Trakya Eğitim Dergisi, 9(2),185-198.

Ünüvar,P. & Kanyılmaz,E.S. (2017). 4-6 yaş çocukları için riskli oyunlara izin verme ölçeğinin geliştirilmesi. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 9(22),510-523

Wells, N. M., & Evans, G. W. (2003). Nearby nature: A buffer of life stress among rural children. Environment and Behavior, 35 (3), 311–330. doi:10.1177/0013916503035003001

Yavuzer, H.(2001). Yaygın ana-baba tutumları, ana-baba okulu, (9. Basım), Remzi Kitabevi, Ankara.




How to Cite

KARACA, N. H. (2022). Development Process of “Scale for the Attitudes towards Risky Play at Early Childhood (SATRPEC) - Parent Form”. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 7(1), 165–176.