Mentoring Inservice Teachers to Support their Inclusive Science Teaching Practices for Students with Visual Impairment

Abstract views: 299 / PDF downloads: 111


  • Tugba Kamali Arslantas
  • Gülistan YALÇIN



inclusive education, visually impaired, mentoring, inservice teacher education


The Accessible Science for Students with Visual Impairment (ASVI) mentoring program aimed at developing innovative teaching methods for teaching science effectively to third-grade and fourth-grade students with visual impairment (VI). In order to achieve this, the program aimed to guide classroom or science teachers to develop or adapt instructional materials based on the objectives of the science class and also the needs of students with VI. The study was conducted during 2019-2020 at Aksaray University, in Turkey, with the participation of 10 faculty members (as the mentors) and 23 inservice teachers (as the mentees). The main purpose of the study was to investigate the inservice teachers’ perceptions (as mentees) about the faculty members’ mentoring roles, and to understand the mentors’ self-perceptions. This research was designed as a qualitative case study. The study’s findings revealed that mentors as the focus of the current study, they had the opportunity to implement procedures based on effective mentoring, and were thereby able to help the inservice teachers develop professionally in their preparations. Mentoring was highlighted as a means of overcoming some of the problems that the inservice teachers’ faced in their educating of students with special needs.

Author Biographies

Tugba Kamali Arslantas

Corresponding Author: Tugba Kamali Arslantas,

Aksaray Üniversitesi


This research was supported by Sabancı Grant Foundation 2019 Program.

Gülistan YALÇIN

Gülistan YALÇIN


Abner, G. H., & Lahm, E. A. (2002). Implementation of assistive technology with students who are visually impaired: Teachers’ readiness. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 96(2), 98-105.

Akçamete, G., Aslan, B., & Dinçer, Ç. (2010, May). Uygulama öğretmenlerinin mentörlük becerilerinin değerlendirilmesi [Evaluation of practice teachers' mentoring skills]. Paper presented at the Uluslararası Öğretmen Yetiştirme Politikaları ve Sorunları Sempozyumu II. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Altunay Arslantekin, B. (2012). Engel türüne göre materyal uyarlama, hazırlama ve kullanımı [add translation here]. In A. Ataman (Ed.), Temel eğitim öğretmenleri için kaynaştırma uygulamaları ve özel eğitim [Inclusive education practices for classroom teachers and special education] (pp. xx-xx). Ankara, Turkey: Vize.

Ambrosetti, A., & Dekkers, J. (2010). The Interconnectedness of the Roles of Mentors and Mentees in Preservice Teacher Education Mentoring Relationships. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 35(6), 42-55.

Aslan, C. (2016). Görme engelliler için yardımcı teknolojiler [Assistive technology for visually impaired]. In S. Çakmak (Ed.), Özel eğitim ve yardımcı teknolojiler [Special education and assistive technologies] (pp. 56-92). Ankara, Turkey: Vize.

Atika, I. N., Ediyanto, E., & Kawai, N. (2018). Improving Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students’ Achievements Using STS Approach: A Literature Review. International Journal of Pedagogy and Teacher Education, 2, 3-19.

Aykut, Ç., & Özmen-Güzel, R. (2010). Hayat bilgisi ve sosyal bilgiler öğretimi [Life studies and social studies teaching]. In İ. H. Diken (Ed.), İlköğretimde kaynaştırma [Inclusive education practices in primary school] (pp. 480-515). Ankara, Turkey: Pegem Akademi.

Baran, E. (2016). Examining the Benefits of a Faculty Technology Mentoring Program on Graduate Students’ Professional Development. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 32(3), 95-104.

Bardin, J. A., & Lewis, S. (2008). A survey of the academic engagement of students with visual impairments in general education classes. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 102(8), 472-483.

Barker, E. R. (2006). Mentoring – a complex relationship. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 18(2), 56-61.

Batu, S., & Kırcaali-İftar, G. (2005). Kaynastirma [Inclusion]. Ankara, Turkey: KOK.

Baxter, P., & Jack, S. (2008). Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers. The Qualitative Report, 13(4), 544-559.

Betts, L. R., & Cross, A. (2010). Reflections on supporting a visually impaired student complete a biological psychology module. Psychology Teaching Review, 16(1), 58-60.

Bogner, D., Hurd, D., Wentworth, B., Ristvey J., & Arens, S A. (2011). Visualizing science with adapted curriculum enhancements. ACE Resource Manual. McREL. Available online at

Bogner, D., Wentworth, B. L., Ristvey, J., Yanow, G., & Wiens, R. (2006). Our place in the spongy universe. The Science Teacher, 73(3), 38-43.

Boyatzis, R. E. (1998). Transforming qualitative information: Thematic analysis and code development. Sage

Boyer, L., & Lee, C. (2001). Converting challenges to success: supporting a new teacher of students with autism. Journal of Special Education, 35(2), 75-83.

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.,

D. (2005). Mentoring and the legal profession: Developing professionals for real. Development and Learning in Organizations, 19(1), 10-12.

Conolly, J., & Blunt, R. J. S. (2006). Perceptions of mentoring: Expectations of a key resource for higher education. South African Journal of Higher Education, 20(2), 195-208.

Creswell, J. W. (2008). Educational research planning, conducting and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Prentice Hall.

da Mota Silveira, H., & Martini, L. C. (2017). How the New Approaches on Cloud Computer Vision can Contribute to Growth of Assistive Technologies to Visually Impaired in the Following Years. Journal of Information Systems Engineering & Management, 2(2), Article 9.

Darrah, M. A. (2013). Computer haptics: A new way of increasing access and understanding of math and science for students who are blind and visually impaired. Journal of Blindness Innovation and Research, 3(2), 3-47.

Davies, M. A., Brady, M., Rodger, E., & Wall, P. (1999). Mentors and school-based partnership: ingredients for professional growth. Action in Teacher Education, 21(1), 85-96.

Driscoll, L. G., Parkes, K. A., Tilley-Lubbs, G. A., Brill, J. M., & Bannister, V. R. (2009). Navigating the lonely sea: Peer mentoring and collaboration among aspiring women scholars. Mentoring and Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 17(1), 5-21.

Ediyanto, E., Atika, I., Hayashida, M., & Kawai, N. (2017). A Literature Study of Science Process Skill toward Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students. In 1st Annual International Conference on Mathematics, Science, and Education (ICoMSE 2017) (pp. 190-195). Atlantis Press.

Fairchild, T. N., & Henson, F. O. (1993). Engelli Çocuklarda Kaynaştırma Eğitimi [Inclusive Education in Children with Disabilities] (S. Ünlü Trans./Ed.). Eskişehir, Turkey: Anadolu University.

Falvey, M., Coots, J., Bishop, K., & Grenot-Scheyer, M. (1989). Educational and curricular adaptations. In S. Stainback, W. Stainback, & M. Forest (Eds.), Educating all students in the mainstream of regular education (pp. 143-1158). Baltimore: Brookes.

Forde, C. & O’Brien, J. (2011). Taking continuing teacher education forward. In C. Forde, & J. O’Brien (Eds.), Coaching and mentoring: Developing teachers and leaders (pp. 82-90). Edinburgh, United Kingdom: Dunedin Academic.

Fraser, W. J., & Maguvhe, M. O. (2008). Teaching life sciences to blind and visually impaired learners. Journal of Biological Education, 42(2), 84-89.

Gabriel, M. A., & Kaufield, K. J. (2008). Reciprocal mentorship: An effective support for online instructors. Mentoring and Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 16(3), 311-327.

Godshalk, V. M., & Sosik, J. J. (2003). Aiming for career success: The role of learning goal orientation in mentoring relationships. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63(3), 417-437.

Gray, C. (2009). A qualitatively different experience: Mainstreaming pupils with a visual impairment in Northern Ireland. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 24(2), 169-182.

Haggarty, L. (1995). The use of content analysis to explore conversations between school teacher mentors and student teachers. British Educational Research Journal, 21(2), 183-197.

Hagger, H., & McIntyre, D. (2006). Learning teaching from teachers: Realising the potential of school-based teacher education. Maidenhead, United Kingdom: Open University.

Hairon, S., Loh, S. H., Lim, S. P., Govindani, S. N., Tan, J. K. T., & Tay, E. C. J. (2019). Structured mentoring: Principles for effective mentoring. Educational Research for Policy and Practice. Advance online publication.

Halai, A. (2006). Mentoring in-service teachers: issues of role diversity. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22(6), 700-710.

Hasper, E., Windhorst, R. A., Hedgpeth, T., Van Tuyl, L., Gonzales, A., Martinez, B.,...Baluch, D. P. (2015). Methods for creating and evaluating 3D tactile images to teach STEM courses to the visually impaired. Journal of College Science Teaching, 44(6), 92-99.

Hatlen, P. (1996). The core curriculum for blind and visually impaired students, including those with additional disabilities. RE:view Online, 28(1), 25-32.

Heirdsfield, A. M., Walker, S., Walsh, K., & Wilss, L. (2008). Peer mentoring for first‐year teacher education students: The mentors’ experience. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 16(2), 109-124.

Hobbs, T., & Westling, D. L. (2002). Mentoring for inclusion: A model class for special and general educators. Teacher Educator, 37(3), 186-201.

Hobson, A. J., Ashby, P., Malderez, A., & Tomlinson, P. D. (2009). Mentoring beginning teachers: What we know and what we don’t. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(1), 207-216.

Hudson, P. (2004). Specific mentoring: a theory and model for developing primary science teaching practices. European Journal of Teacher Education, 27(2), 139-146.

Hudson, P. (2013). Mentoring as professional development: ‘growth for both’ mentor and mentee. Professional Development in Education, 39(5), 771-783.

Huizing, R. L. (2012). Mentoring together: A literature review of group mentoring. Mentoring and Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 20(1), 27-55

Huskins, W. C., Silet, K., Weber-Main, A. M., Begg, M. D., Fowler, V. G., Hamilton, J. & Fleming, M. (2011). Identifying and Aligning Expectations in a Mentoring Relationship. Clinical and Translational Science Journal, 4(6), 439-447.

Ingersoll, R. M., & Strong, M. (2011). The impact of induction and mentoring programs for beginning teachers: A critical review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 81(2), 201-233.

Janse Van Rensburg, K., & Roodt, G. (2005). The perceptions of employment equity and black economic empowerment as predictors of union commitment. South Africa Journal of Industrial Psychology, 31(1), 55-64.

Jones, M. G., & Broadwell, B. (2008). Visualization without vision: students with visual. In J. K. Gilbert, M. Reiner, & M. Nakhleh (Eds.), Visualization: Theory and practice in science education (pp. 283-294). Dordrecht, Germany: Springer.

Jones, M. G., Minogue, J., Oppewal, T., Cook, M. P., & Broadwell, B. (2006). Visualizing without vision at the microscale: Students with visual impairments explore cells with touch. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 15(5-6), 345-351.

Kamali Arslantas, T., Yıldırım, S., & Altunay Arslantekin, B. (2019). Educational affordances of a specific web-based assistive technology for students with visual impairment. Interactive Learning Environments (Advance online publication).

Kızılaslan, A., Zorluoğlu, S. L., & Sözbilir, M. (2020). A hands-on classroom activity to teach science concepts for students with visual impairment. Science Activities, 56(4), 130-138.

King, N. (2004). Using templates in the thematic analysis of text. In C. Cassell & G. Symon (Eds.), Essential guide to qualitative methods in organizational research (pp. 257–270). Sage

Klasen, N., & Clutterbuck, D. (2002). Implementing Mentoring Schemes: A Practical Guide. Oxford, United Kingdom: Elsevier.

Koehler, K. E., & Wild, T. A. (2019). Students with Visual Impairments Access and Participation in the Science Curriculum: Views of Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments. Journal of Science Education for Students with Disabilities, 22(1), 8

Koehler, K. E., Wild, T. A., & Tikkun, S. (2018). Implications of 3-D Printing for Teaching Geoscience Concepts to Students with Visual Impairments. Journal of Science Education for Students with Disabilities, 21(1), 49-81.

Koenig, A. J., & Holbrook, M. C. (2000). Foundations of education, Volume II: Instructional strategies for teaching children and youths with visual impairments. Sewickley, PA: AFB Press.

Kolitsky, M. A. (2014). Reshaping teaching and learning with 3D printing technologies. e-mentor, 56(4), 84-94.

Kopcha, T. (2010). A systems-based approach to technology integration using mentoring and communities of practice. Educational Technology Research and Development, 58(2), 175-190

Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications.

Lohmeier, K. L. (2009). Aligning state standards and the expanded core curriculum: Balancing the impact of the No Child Left Behind Act. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 103(1), 44-47.

Lopez-Real, F., & Kwan, T. (2005). Mentors’ perceptions of their own professional development during mentoring. Journal of Education for Teaching, 31(1), 15-24.

Ludi, S., Canter, A., Ellis, L., & Shrestha, A. (2012). Requirements gathering for assistive technology that includes low vision and sighted users. In 2012 First International Workshop on Usability and Accessibility Focused Requirements Engineering (UsARE) (pp. 25-31). IEEE.

Luecke, R. (2004). Coaching and Mentoring: How to Develop Top Talent and Achieve Stronger Performance. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press.

Lumpkin, A. (2011). A Model for Mentoring University Faculty. The Educational Forum, 75 (4), 357-368

Lunney, D. (1995). Assistive technology in the science laboratory: A talking laboratory work station for visually impaired science students. Information Technology and Disabilities, 2(1).

Mathur, S. R., Gehrke, R., & Kim, S. H. (2013). Impact of a teacher mentorship program on mentors’ and mentees’ perceptions of classroom practices and the mentoring experience. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 38(3), 154-162.

Mena, J., Hennissen, P., & Loughran, J. (2017). Developing pre-service teachers’ professional knowledge of teaching: The influence of mentoring. Teaching & Teacher Education, 66, 47-59.

Metatla, O. (2017, July). Uncovering challenges and opportunities of including children with visual impairments in mainstream schools. In Proceedings of the 31st British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Conference (Article 102). Swindon, United Kingdom: British Computer Society.

Meyer, M., & Fourie, L. (2004). Mentoring and coaching: tools and techniques for implementation. Johannesburg, South Africa: Knowres.

Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı. (2018). Özel Eğitim Hizmetleri Yönetmeliği [Special Education Services Regulation]. Resmî Gazete 07.07.2018 Sayılı 30471. Ankara, Turkey: Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı. Retrieved from

Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı. (2020). Millî eğitim istatistikleri örgün eğitim 2018-2019 [National education statistics formal education]. Resmi İstatistik Programı. Ankara, Turkey: Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı. Retrieved from

Moon, T. R., & Callahan, C. M. (2001). Curricular modifications, family outreach, and a mentoring program: Impacts on achievement and gifted identification in high-risk primary students. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 24(4), 305-321.

Moreland, L. M. (2015). Science for Visually Impaired Students and Accessible Technology (Doctoral dissertation). Marshall University, Charleston, WV. Retrieved from

Morelle, M. (2016). Challenges experienced by learners with visual impairment in two mainstream primary schools in Klerksdorp, Dr. Kenneth Kaunda District. (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Africa.

Morelle, M., & Tabane, R. (2019). Challenges experienced by learners with visual impairments in South African township mainstream primary schools. South African Journal of Education, 39(3), Article 1615.

Mundilarto, M. (2002). Posisi dan peranan strategis pengajaran IPA (Fisika) di SLTP [Position and Strategic Role of Teaching Natural Sciences (Physics) at SLTP]. Cakrawala Pendidikan, Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan, 2002(3), 339-356.

Nees, M. A., & Berry, L. F. (2013). Audio assistive technology and accommodations for students with visual impairments: Potentials and problems for delivering curricula and educational assessments. Performance Enhancement & Health, 2(3), 101-109.

Negrete, O., Lisboa, A., Peña, F. J., Dib, C. O., & Vargas, P. (2020). Teaching labs for blind students: equipment to measure the thermal expansion coefficient of a metal. European Journal of Physics, 41(3), 035704.

Nowell, L. S., Norris, J. M., White, D. E., & Moules, N. J. (2017). Thematic analysis: Striving to meet the trustworthiness criteria. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 16(1)

Ogawa, R. T., & Malen, B. (1991). Towards rigor in reviews of multivocal literatures: Applying the exploratory case study method. Review of Educational Research, 61(3), 265-286.

Okonkwo, H. C., Fajonyomi, M. G., Omotosho, J. A., Esere, M. O., & Olawuyi, B. O. (2017). Challenges, counselling needs, and coping strategies of students with visual impairment in regular secondary schools in Nigeria. Human and Social Studies, 6(1), 111-137.

Ota, C. L., & Austin, A. M. B. (2013). Training and mentoring: Family child care providers’ use of linguistic inputs in conversations with children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28(4), 972-983.

Patton, K., Griffin, L. L., Sheehy, D., Arnold, R., Gallo, A. M., Richardson, K.,...James, A. (2005). Navigating the mentoring process in a research-based teacher development project: A situated learning perspective. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 24, 302-325.

Pleiss, M. K., & Feldhusen, J. F. (1995). Mentors, role models, and heroes in the lives of gifted children. Educational Psychologist, 30(3), 159-169.

Porter, J., & Lacey, P. (2008). Safeguarding the needs of children with a visual impairment in non-VI special schools. British Journal of Visual Impairment, 26(1), 50-62.

Rajuan, M., Beijaard, D., & Verloop, N. (2010). The match and mismatch between expectations of student teachers and cooperating teachers: Exploring different opportunities for learning to teach in the mentor relationship. Research Papers in Education, 25(2), 201-223.

Ramrathan, L., & Mzimela, J. (2016). Teaching reading in a multi-grade class: Teachers’ adaptive skills and teacher agency in teaching across grade R and grade 1. South African Journal of Childhood Education, 6(2), Article 448.

Rice, P. L., & Ezzy, D. (1999). Qualitative research methods: A health focus (Vol. 720). Victoria, Australia: Oxford University.

Rosenblum, L. P., Ristvey, J., & Hospitál, L. (2019). Supporting Elementary School Students with Visual Impairments in Science Classes. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 113(1), 81-88.

Roth, W.-M., & Tobin, K. (2002). At the elbows of another: Learning to teach through co-teaching. New York, NY: Lang.

Rudiyati, S. (2014). Improving Skills of Candidate Teachers of Children with Visual Impairment as Sighted Guide. Dewantara, 2(1), 24-33.

Rule, A. C. (2011). Tactile Earth and space science materials for students with visual impairments: Contours, craters, asteroids, and features of Mars. Journal of Geoscience Education, 59(4), 205-218.

Rule, A. C., Stefanich, G. P., Boody, R. M., & Peiffer, B. (2011). Impact of adaptive materials on teachers and their students with visual impairments in secondary science and mathematics classes. International Journal of Science Education, 33(6), 865-887.

Şahin, M., & Yorek, N. (2009). Teaching Science to Visually Impaired Students: A Small-Scale Qualitative Study. Online Submission, 6(4), 19-26.

S´anchez-García, A. B., Marcos, J. J. M., GuanLin, H., & Escribano, J. P. (2013). Teacher development and ICT: The effectiveness of a training program for in-service school teachers. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 92, 529-534.

Sapp, W., & Hatlen, P. (2010). The expanded core curriculum: Where we have been, where we are going, and how we can get there. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 104(6), 338-348.

Silverman, D. (2000). Doing qualitative research: A practical handbook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Simpson, T., Hastings, W., & Hill, B. (2007). ‘I knew that she was watching me’: the professional benefits of mentoring. Teachers & Teaching, 13(5), 481-498.

Smith, D. W., Kelley, P., Maushak, N. J., Griffin-Shirley, N., & Lan, W. Y. (2009). Assistive technology competencies for teachers of students with visual impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 103(8), 457-469.

St-Jean, E., & Audet, J. (2009). Factors leading to satisfaction in a mentoring scheme for novice entrepreneurs. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring, 7(1), 148-161.

Supalo, C. A., Humphrey, J. R., Mallouk, T. E., Wohlers, H. D., & Carlsen, W. S. (2016). Examining the use of adaptive technologies to increase the hands-on participation of students with blindness or low vision in secondary-school chemistry and physics. Chemistry toenderEducation Research and Practice, 17(4), 1174-1189.

Toenders, F. G., de Putter-Smits, L. G., Sanders, W. T., & den Brok, P. (2017). Improving physics teaching materials on sound for visually impaired students in high school. Physics Education, 52(5).

Truter, I. (2008). Responsibilities of a leader as mentor and coach:: management. South African Pharmaceutical Journal, 75(5), 58-61.

Urquhart, V. (2012). How One Teacher, Two Students with Visual Impairments, and a Three-Year R&D Project Could Change How All Students Learn Science. Journal of the American Academy of Special Education Professionals, 2012(Spring-Summer), 185-196.

van Dijk, H. G. (2008). The talent management approach to human resource management: attracting and retaining the right people. Journal of Public Administration, 43(SI 1), 385-395.

van Ginkel, G., Oolbekkink, H., Meijer, P. C., & Verloop, N. (2016). Adapting mentoring to individual differences in novice teacher learning: the mentor’s viewpoint. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 22(2), 198-218.

Wang, J. (2002). Contexts of mentoring and opportunities for learning to teach: A comparative study of mentoring practice. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(1), 51–73.

White, M., & Mason, C. Y. (2006). Components of a successful mentoring program for beginning special education teachers: Perspectives from new teachers and mentors. Teacher Education and Special Education, 29(3), 191-201.

Wilkinson, C., Pennington, T. R., Whiting, E., Newberry, M., & Feinauer, E. (2014). Triad relationships and member satisfaction with paired placement of student teachers. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 39(8), 162-184.

Yalcin, G. (2020). Görme yetersizliği olan öğrencilere yönelik ortam, materyal ve program/öğretimsel düzenlemeler [Setting, materials and program / educational arrangements for students with visual impairments]. In P. Piştav Akmeşe & B. Altunay (Eds.), İşitme ve görme yetersizliği olan çocuklar ve eğitimleri [Children with hearing and vision impairments and their education] (pp. 271-293). Ankara, Turkey: Nobel.

Yalcin, G., & Altunay Arslantekin, B. (2019). Görme yetersizliği olan öğrenciler için genişletilmiş çekirdek müfredat ve dinleme becerileri [Extended core curriculum and listening skills for visually impaired students]. Aksaray Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 3(2), 298-323.

Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2011). Sosyal bilimlerde araştırma yöntemleri [Research methods in social sciences]. Ankara, Turkey: Seçkin Yayınları.

Zachary, L. (2009). Examining and expanding mentoring practice. Adult Learning, 20(1-2), 43-45.




How to Cite

Arslantas, T. K., & YALÇIN, G. (2022). Mentoring Inservice Teachers to Support their Inclusive Science Teaching Practices for Students with Visual Impairment. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 7(2), 112–131.