Entrepreneurship Competencies of School Principals: A Scale Development Study

Abstract views: 223 / PDF downloads: 77


  • Münevver ÇETİN




Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship Competencies, School Principals, Scale Development


This research aims to produce a reliable and valid scale that includes the entrepreneurship competencies of school principals according to the perceptions of teachers working in state-owned schools. First, after the literature review, an item pool consisting of five-point Likert item type and seventy-four items was created, and then the relevant items were presented to eleven experts to determine the content validity. After the expert evaluations, the content validity rates of the relevant items were calculated with the Lawshe technique, the nineteen items below the criterion value were removed from the scale, and a scale draft form consisting of fifty-five items was created. To carry out the EFA of the scale, the first application was performed with 436 teachers working in Çekmeköy district of Istanbul province on an online platform in March-April 2020. In the EFA process carried out in line with the data obtained, observations revealed that the scale had a four-factor structure. Then, the Varimax technique was used to clarify the distribution of scale items to factors, and seventeen items that were found to have a load of .30 and above from more than one factor and that the load difference was less than .100 were removed from the scale. As a result of EFA, a scale consisting of 38 items and subdimensions of “Personal Competencies”, “Organizational Competencies”, “Relational Competencies”, and “Commitment Self-Confidence Competencies” which explain 73.32% of the total variance was obtained. Subsequently, reliability coefficients of the scale (Cronbach’s Alpha .98), discrimination indices, item-total – item-residual correlations, and correlations between scale total and subdimensions were calculated. Finally, to carry out the CFA, the second application was carried out online with a sample of 724 teachers in May-June 2020 and the obtained goodness of fit values confirmed the scale model. All these obtained values confirm the valid and reliable structure of the developed scale.

Author Biographies


Corresponding Author: Mesut Demirbilek, demirbilekmesut@gmail.com

Marmara University

Münevver ÇETİN

Münevver ÇETİN


• Ağca, V. (2004). Intrapreneurship construct and it’s effects on the firm performance a survey of the tekstile firms in Denizli (Unpublished PhD Thesis). Afyon Kocatepe University, Social Sciences Institute, Afyon.

• Alberti, F., Sciascia, S., & Poli, A. (2004). Entrepreneurship education: Notes on an ongoing debate. 14th Annual Intent Conference, University of Napoli Federico II Italy, 4-7 July 2004.

• Albrıght, J. J., & Park, H. M. (2009). Confirmatory Factor Analysis Using Amos, LISREL, Mplus, SAS/STAT CALIS, University Information Technology Services Center for Statistical and Mathematical Computing Indiana University. https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/2022/19736/Confirmatory%20Factor%20Analysis%20using%20Amos%2c%20LISREL%2c%20Mplus%2c%20SAS%3aSTAT%20CALIS.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y adresinden edinilmiştir.

• Alfırevıc, N., Vıcan, D., Pavıcıc, C., & Petkovıc, S. (2018). Entrepreneurial Orientation of School Principals and Principalship in Croatia and Bosnia & Herzegovina: Psychological, Educational and Social Perspectives. Rev. soc. polit., 25 (1), 85-97. Doi: 10.3935/rsp.v25i1.1461

• Altunışık, R., Coşkun, R., Bayraktaroğlu, S., & Yıldırım, E. (2010). Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntemleri SPSS Uygulamalı[SPSS Applied Research Methods in Social Sciences]. Sakarya: Sakarya Yayıncılık.

• Armuna, C., Ramos, S., Juan, J., Feijoo, C., & Arenal, A. (2020). From stand-up to start-up: exploring entrepreneurship competences and STEM women’s intention. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, (cilt sayı yok), 1-24.

• Ayub, D., & Othman, N. (2013). Entrepreneurship Management Practices in Creating Effective Schools. Asian Social Science, 9 (12), 69-78.

• Bacigalupo, M., Kampylis, P., Punie, Y., & Van den Brande, G. (2016). EntreComp: The Entrepreneurship Competence Framework. Luxembourg: Publication Office of the European Union.

• Bentler, P. M., & Bonett, D. G. (1980). Significance Tests and Goodness of Fit in The Analysis of Covariance Structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88(3), 588-606. Doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.88.3.588

• Bhatt, A. K. (2016).Innovation and Entrepreneurship. New Delhı: Laxmi Publications.

• Blake, B., & Mestry, R. (2014). The changing dimensions of the finances on urban schools: An entrepreneurial approach for principals. Education as Change, 18(1), 163–178. Doi:10.1080/16823206.2013.847017

• Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2006). Sosyal Bilimler İçin Veri Analizi: İstatistik, Araştırma Deseni SPSS Uygulamaları ve Yorum [Data Analysis for Social Sciences: Statistics, Research Design, SPSS Applications and Interpretation]. Ankara: PegemA Yayıncılık.

• Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2012). Sosyal Bilimler İçin Veri Analizi El Kitabı [Manual Of Data Analysis For Social Sciences]. Ankara: Pegem Yayınları.

• Bygrave, W. D.,& Hofer, C. W. (1992). Theorizing about Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16(2), 13–22. Doi: 10.1177/104225879201600203

• Byrne, B. M. (2011). Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming (Multivariate Applications Series), Routledge, New York.

• Caird, S. (1991). Research note: The enterprising tendency of occupational groups. International Small Business Journal, 9(4), 75–181.

• Chen, C. C., Greene, P. G., & Crick, A. (1998). Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs from managers? Journal of Business Venturing, 13(4), 295–316. Doi: 10.1016/S0883-9026(97)00029-3

• Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1995). Constructing Validity: Basic Issues in Objective Scale Development. Psychological Assessment, 7(3), 309-319. Doi:10.1037/1040-3590.7.3.309

• Currie, G., Humphreys, M., Ucbasaran, D., & McManus, S. (2008). Entrepreneurial leadership in the English public sector: Paradox or possibility? Public Administration, 86(4), 987-1008. Doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9299.2008.00736.x

• Çokluk, Ö., Şekercioğlu, G., & Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2010). Sosyal Bilimler İçin Çok Değişkenli İstatistik SPSS ve LISREL Uygulamaları [SPSS and LISREL Applications Multivariate Statistics for Social Sciences]. Ankara: Pegem Akademi Yayıncılık.

• Dollinger, M. J. (2008). Entrepreneurshıp: Strategies and Resources. Illinois: Marsh Publıcatıons.

• Dornelas, J. C. A. (2008). Empreendedorismo: transformando idéias em negócios [Entrepreneurship: turning ideas into business]. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier.

• Drucker, P. F. (1985).Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Practice and Principles. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1496169.

• Du Toit, C. M. (1990). Fundamental business economics. Durban: Butterworths.

• Erkorkmaz, Ü., Etikan, İ., Demir, O., Özdamar, K. ve Sanisoğlu, S. Y. (2013). Doğrulayıcı Faktör Analizi ve Uyum İndeksleri [Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Fit Indices]. Turkiye Klinikleri, 33 (1), 210-223. Doi: 10.5336/medsci.2011-26747

• Fernald, L., Solomon, G.T. & Tarabishy, A. (2005). A new paradigm: entrepreneurial leadership. Southern Business Review, 30(2), 1–10.

• Field, A. (2009). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS: Introducing Statistical Method. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

• Fraenkel, J. R., & Wallen, N. E. (1993). How to Design And Evaluate Research İn Education. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill.

• George, D., & Mallery, M. (2010). SPSS for Windows Step by Step: A Simple Guide and Reference, 17.0 update. Boston: Pearson.

• Germain, M. L. (2006). Stages of Psychometric Measure Development: The example of the Generalized Expertise Measure (GEM). Online Submission. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED492775.pdf adresinden edinilmiştir.

• Ghasemi, F., Rastegar, A., Jahromi, R.G., & Marvdashti, R. R. (2011). The relationship between creativity and achievement motivation with high school students’ entrepreneurship. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences, (30), 1291-1296. Doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.250

• Gibb, A. (1998).Entrepreneurial Core Capacities, Competitiveness and Management Development in the 21st Century. Durham: DUBS.

• Gupta, V., MacMillan, I. C., & Surie, G. (2004). Entrepreneurial Leadership: Developing and Measuring A Cross-Cultural Construct. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(2), 241-260. Doi: 10.1016/S0883-9026(03)00040-5

• Gürbüz, S., & Şahin, F. (2018). Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntemleri Felsefe, Yöntem, Analiz [Research Methods in Social Sciences: Philosophy, Method, Analysis]. Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.

• Hinkin, T. R. (1995). A review of scale development practices in the study of organizations. Journal of Management, 21(5), 967-988. Doi: 10.1177/014920639502100509

• Hitt, M., Ireland, R.D., Camp, S.M., & Sexton, D. (2002). Strategic Entrepreneurship: Creating a New Mindset. Cornwall: Blackwell Publishers.

• Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff Criteria for Fit İndexes in Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional Criteria Versus New Alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55. Doi: 10.1080/10705519909540118

• Hutchenson, G. D., & Sofroniou, N. (1999). The Multivariate Social Scientist: An Introduction to Generalized Linear Models. London: Sage Publications.

• İşcan, Ö. F., & Kaygın, E. (2011). Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Girişimcilik Eğilimlerini Belirlemeye Yönelik Bir Araştırma [An Investigation to Determine the Entrepreneurship Tendency of University Students]. Atatürk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 15(2), 443-462.

• Kan, A. (2009). Ölçme Araçlarında Bulunması Gereken Nitelikler [Qualities Required in Measurement Tools]. H. Atılgan (Edt.), Eğitimde Ölçme ve Değerlendirme [Measurement and Evaluation in Education] (s. 23-80). Ankara: Anı Yayıncılık.

• Karasar, N. (2012). Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemi [Scientific Research Method]. Ankara: Bilim Kitap Kırtasiye Yayınevi.

• Kets de Vries, M. F. R (1993). Leaders, Fools and Imposters. Essays on the Psychology of Leadership. Schiedam: Scriptum.

• Kirkley, W. W. (2017). Cultivating entrepreneurial behaviour: entrepreneurship education in secondary schools. Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 11(1), 17-37. Doi: 10.1108/APJIE-04-2017-018 Kuratko, D. F. (2017). Entrepreneurship: Theory, process, practice. Boston: Cengage Learning.

• Kuratko, D., & Hodgetts, R. (1998). Entrepreneurship: A contemporary approach. Sydney: Harcourt and Brace.

• Lackeus, M. (2015). Entrepreneurshıp In Educatıon: What, Why, When, How. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD]. https://www.oecd.org/cfe/leed/BGP_Entrepreneurship-in-Education.pdf adresinden edinilmiştir.

• Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A Quantitative Approach to Content Validity. Personnel Psychology, (28), 563–575.

• Livingston, S. A. (2018). Test reliability—Basic concepts (Research Memorandum No. RM-18-01). Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

• Man, T. W., Lau, T., & Chan, K. (2002). The competitiveness of small and medium enterprises: A conceptualization with focus on entrepreneurial competencies. Journal of Business Venturing, 17(2), 123–142.

• Mazzarol, T., & Reboud, S. (2017). Entrepreneurship and Innovation: Theory, Practice and Context. Singapore: Springer Nature.

• McClelland, D. A. (1961). The Achieving Society. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.

• McCowan, R. J., & McCowan, S. C. (1999). Item Analysis for Criterion Referenced Tests. New York: Research Foundation of SUNY/Center for Development of Human Services.

• Minello, I. F., Scherer, L. A. & Alves, L. C. (2014). Entrepreneurial Competencies and Business Failure. International Journal of Entrepreneurship, (18), 1-15.

• Mintzberg, H. (1990). Strategy Formation: Schools of Thought. InJ. Frederickson (Edt.).,Perspectives on Strategic Management (pp.105-237).New York: Harper Business.

• Mitchelmore, S., & Rowley, J. (2010). Entrepreneurial competencies: A literature review and development agenda. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 16(2), 92–111. Doi: 10.1108/13552551011026995

• Najim, A. N., El-Refae, G. A. & Alnaji, L. (2013). The Impact of the Key Dimensions of Entrepreneurship on Opportunities for the Success of New Ventures in the Greater Amman Municipality. European Journal of Business and Management, 5(4), 159-173.

• Nieman, G., Hough, J., & Nieuwenhuizen, C. (2004). Entrepreneurship: A South African perspective. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.

• Ntoumanis, N. (2001). Step by Step Guide to SPSS for Sport and Exercise Studies, New York, Routledge-Taylor &Francis Group.

• Onstenk, J. (2003). Entrepreneurship and Vocational Education. European Educational Research Journal, 2(1), 74-89. Doi: 10.2304/eerj.2003.2.1.12

• Özdamar, K. (2004). Paket Programlar İle İstatistiksel Veri Analizi (Çok Değişkenli Analizler)[ Statistical Data Analysis with Package Programs]. Eskişehir: Kaan Kitapevi.

• Pahuja, A., & Sanjeev, R. (2015). Introduction to Entrepreneurship. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301659818_Introduction_to_Entrepreneurship adresinden erişilmiştir.

• Pihie, Z. A. L., Asimiran, S., & Bagheri, A. (2014). Entrepreneurial leadership practices and school innovativeness. South African Journal of Education, 34(1), 1-11. Doi: 10.15700/201412120955

• Plichta, S. B., & Kelvin, E. (2013). Munro’s Statistical Methods For Health Care Research. Wolters Kluwer Health-Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. http://jumed15.weebly.com/uploads/5/8/7/5/58753271/munro%C3%A2s-statistical-methods-for-healt-care-research.pdf adresinden edinilmiştir.

• Research Centre for Learning and Teaching of Newcastle University (2015). Entrepreneurial School Leadership. Newcastle University, UK (1.3.2015 tarihli rapor). http://www.ec4slt.com/documents/Drobnic_literature_review_2015.pdf adresinden erişilmiştir.

• Rigdon, E. E. (1996). CFI versus RMSEA: A comparison of two fit indexes for structural equation modeling. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 3(4), 369-379. Doi: 10.1080/10705519609540052

• Ruskovaara, E., Pihkala, T., Rytköla, T., & Seikkula-Leino, J. (2011). Entrepreneurship in entrepreneurship education–practices in finnish basic and secondary education level. ICSB World Conference Proceedings. https://developmentcentre.lut.fi/files/muut/ICSB_2011_Tukholma.pdf adresinden edinilmiştir.

• Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the Fit of Structural Equation Models: Tests of Significance and Descriptive Goodness-of-Fit Measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8(2), 23-74.

• Schriesheim, C. A., Powers, K. J., Scandura, T. A., Gardiner, C. C., & Lankau, M. J. (1993). Improving construct measurement in management research: Comments and a quantitative approach for assessing the theoretical content adequacy of paper-and-pencil survey-type instruments. Journal of Management, 19 (2), 385-417. Doi: 10.1016/0149-2063(93)90058-U

• Schumpeter, J. A. (2011) . Can Capitalism survive? Connecticut: Martino Fine Books.

• Slater, R. O., & Doig, J. W. (1988). Leadership In Education: Issues of Entrepreneurship and Environment. Education and Urban Society, 20(3), 294-301.

• Stevenson, H. H., & Jarillo, J. C. (1990). A paradigm of entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial management. Strategic Management Journal, (11), 17–27.

• Syapriyuda, S., & Santosa, A. B. (2020). Entrepreneurshıp Competence Of The Prıncıpal In Improvıng School Independence In Sd Muhammadıyah Kleco 2 Kotagede Yogyakarta. International Journal on Education, Management and Innovation (IJEMI), 1(1), 1-12. Doi: 10.12928/ijemi.v1i1.1484

• Şeker, H., & Gençdoğan, B. (2014). Psikolojide ve Eğitimde Ölçme Aracı Geliştirme [Measurement Tool Development in Psychology and Education]. Ankara: Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık.

• Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2015). Çok Değişkenli İstatistiklerin Kullanımı [Use of Multivariate Statistics]. (Çev. M. Baloğlu). Ankara: Nobel Yayınevi.

• Tavşancıl, E. (2010). Tutumların Ölçülmesi ve SPSS ile Veri Analizi[Measuring Attitudes and Data Analysis with SPSS]. Ankara: Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.

• Thornberry, N. (2006). Lead Like an Entrepreneur. Blacklick, OH: McGraw-Hill.

• Tolentino, A. (1998) Training and Development of Entrepreneurs-managers of Small Enterprises: pointers and lessons learned. Geneva: International Labour Organization.

• Wibowo, A., & Saptono, A. (2018). Does Entrepreneurial Leadership Impact on Creativity and Innovation of Elementary Teachers? Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 21(2), 1-9.

• Wiersma, W., & Jurs, S. G. (1990). Educational measurement and testing. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

• Yaşlıoğlu, M. M. (2017). Sosyal Bilimlerde Faktör Analizi ve Geçerlilik: Keşfedici ve Doğrulayıcı Faktör Analizlerinin Kullanılması [Factor Analysis and Validity in Social Sciences: Using Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis]. İstanbul Üniversitesi İşletme Fakültesi Dergisi, 46(Özel Sayı), 74-85.

• Yemini, Addi-Raccah & Katarivas (2014). I Have a Dream: School Principals as Entrepreneurs. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 43(4), 1-15. Doi: 10.1177/1741143214523018

• Yurdugül, H. (2005). Ölçek Geliştirme Çalışmalarında Kapsam Geçerliliği için Kapsam Geçerlik &İndekslerinin Kullanılması [Using Content Validity &Indices for Content Validity in Scale Development Studies]. XIV. Ulusal Eğitim Bilimleri Kongresi Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi, 28–30 Eylül 2005, Denizli.

• Zimmerer, T. W.,& Scarborough, N. M. (1996). Entrepreneurship and New Venture Formation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

• Zimmerer, T. W.,& Scarborough, N. M. (2001). Essentials of Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.




How to Cite

DEMİRBİLEK, Mesut, & ÇETİN, M. (2022). Entrepreneurship Competencies of School Principals: A Scale Development Study. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 8(3), 55–80. https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.847110