Developing a Story Writing Attitude Scale for Secondary School Students

Abstract views: 195 / PDF downloads: 83


  •  Nesime ERTAN ÖZEN
  • Erol DURAN



Attitude, Writing Story, Scale development


The aim of this study is to develop a measurement tool to measure the attitude towards story writing. Validity and reliability studies of the scale, applied to 243 secondary school students, were carried out with exploratory factor analysis, measurement of internal consistency and confirmatory factor analysis. EFA revealed that the scale had three dimensions as planned in the original. Cronbach Alpha internal consistency coefficient was calculated as 0.95 in order to determine the reliability of the scale. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) coefficient was found as 0.94 in principal component analysis. In addition, the Barlett Sphericity test was significant (χ2 = 3529,500; p<0,01). Factor loads as a result of varimax rotation varies between 0.43 and 0.80. In CFA, it was stated that the standardized regression coefficients varied between 0.51 and 0.81, and that the items in each dimension had a significant predictive power. As a result of the analysis, a valid and reliable scale was obtained. In addition, the attitudes of 243 secondary school students towards story writing were investigated. As a result of the data, it was observed that students had a positive attitude towards story writing.

Author Biographies


This article is derived from the first author’s PhD dissertation entitled "Contribution of digital storytelling to 7 th Grade students' creative thinking skills", conducted under the supervision of the second author.

Corresponding Author: Nesime Ertan Özen,





Abott, H, P. (2010). The Cambridge introduction to narrative. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ak, E. (2011). The effect of creative writing techniques on the written expression skills of 5th grade students in Turkish lessons (Master’s thesis). University of Dokuz Eylul, Izmir.

Akaydın, Ş. & Kurnaz, H. (2015). The writing attitude scale for high school students: a study of validity and reliability. Mustafa Kemal University Journal of Social Sciences Institude, 12(32), 246-241.

Ayrancı, B. B. & Temizyürek, F. (2017). Developing a scale to assess the free writing attitudes of faculty of education students. Journal of Mother Tongue Education, 5(4), 704-716.

Arbuckle, J. L. (2012). IBM SPSS AMOS Users Guide. Crawfordville, Florida: Amos Development Corporation.

Arı, G. (2008). Assessment of students’ narrative texts by analytic rubric (grade 6 and 7) (Doctoral dissertation). University of Marmara, İstanbul.

Aytaç, M. & Öngen, B. (2012). The structure of environmental attidutes: First-order confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of Statisticians: Statistics and Acturial Sciences, 5(1), 14-22.

Bandura, A. & Schunk, D. (1981). Cultivating competence, self-efficacy, and intrinsic interest through proximal self-motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,41, 586-598.

Bartscher, M. A., Lawler, K. E., Ramirez, A. J. & Schinault, K. S. (2001). Improwing student’s writing ability through journals and creative writing exercices. Master of arts action research project reports, Saint Xavier University, Chicago.

Baştuğ, M., & Keskin, H. K. (2017). Reliability and validity study of scale attitudes towards writing from paper to digital. Educational Technology Theory and Practice, 7(2), 58-72.

Benson, J. & Hocevar, D. (1985). The impact of item phrasing on the validity of attitude scales for elementary school children. Journal of Educational Measurement, 22(3), 231-240.

Blunch, N. J. (2008). Introduction to structural equation modelling using SPSS and AMOS. London: SAGE Publications.

Boratav, P. N. (2009). In time. Ankara: İmge.

Bryman, A. & Cramer, D. (2001). Quantitative data analysis with SPSS release 10 for windows: A guide for social scientists. London: Routledge.

Byrne, B. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: basic concepts, applications, and programming (multivariate applications). London: Routledge.

Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2002). Faktor analysis: Basic concepts and using to development scale. Educational Administration in Theory & Practice, 8(4), 470-483.

Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2014). Manual of data analysis in social sciences. Ankara: Pegem.

Büyüköztürk, Ş., Akgün, Ö., Kahveci, Ö., Demirel, F. (2004). The validity and reliability study of the Turkish version of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 4(2), 207-239.

Can, A. (2014). Quantitative data analysis in scientific research process with SPSS. Ankara: Pegem.

Can, B. (2016). The effect of education model based on self-regulated strategy development on improving story writing skills (Doctoral dissertation). University of Gazi, Ankara.

Can, E. & Topçuoğlu Ünal, F. (2017). Attitude scale towards writing for secondary school students: the study of validity and reliability. International Journal of Languages’ Education and Teaching, 5(3), 203-212.

Can, E. (2018). A practice to develop writing skill in narrative text type: Fiction ladder (Master’s thesis). University of Dumlupınar, Kütahya.

Coşkun, E. (2007). Writing skill. Kırkkılıç, A. & Akyol, H. (Eds.), Teaching Turkish in Primary Education in (p. 49-91). Ankara: Pegem.

Çokluk, Ö., Şekercioğlu, G. & Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2016). Multivariate statistics for social sciences: SPSS and LISREL applications. Ankara: Pegem.

Del Águila, V. (2016). Improving learners’ fluency through the implementation of creative writing in the EFL classroom. Universidad de Piura. Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación. Piura, Perú.

Englert, C, Raphael T., Fear, K. & Anderson. (1988). Students' metacognitive knowledge about how to write informational texts. Learning Disability Quarterly, 11,18-4.

Erdoğan, Ö. (2012). The effects of process based creative writing activities on students’ writing expression and attitude towards writing (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). University of Hacettepe, Ankara.

Eronat, K. (1995). Turkish storytelling and Rasim Özdenören (Master’s thesis). University of Fırat, Elazığ.

Fazio, R. H., & Olson, M .A. (2003). Attitudes: Foundations, functions, and consequences. In M. A. Hogg & J. Cooper (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of social psychology. London, England: Sage.

Genette, G. (1982). Figures of literary discourse. New York: Columbia University Press.

Graham, S., Berninger, V., & Fan, W. (2007). The structural relationship between writing attitude and writing achievement in first and third grade students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 32, 516- 536.

Graham, S., Harris, K. R., MacArthur, C.A., & Schwartz, S. (1991).Writing and writing instruction for students with learning disabilities: Review of a research program. Learning Disability Quarterly, 14, 89-11.

Göçer, A. (2014). The adaptation to Turkish of the writing attitude scale (WAS): The study of validity and reliability. Kastamonu Education Journal, 22(2), 515-524.

Güneş, F. (2013). Turkish teaching approaches and models. Ankara: Pegem.

Harmer, J. (2004). How to teach writing. New York: Pearson.

İşeri, K. & Ünal, E. (2010). The adaptation of writing disposition scale into Turkish. Education and Science, 35(155), 104-117.

Jabali, O. (2018). Students' attitudes towards EFL university writing: A case study at An-Najah National University, Palestine. Heliyon, 4(11), 1-25.

Kaiser, H. F. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39(1), 31-36.

Kayasandık, A. (2012). Forms of expressions. Kaçalin, M., Örgen, E. & Altun, K. (Eds.), Written and Oral Expression in (p. 130-258). Ankara: Elhan.

Kırmızı, F. S. (2009). In Turkish courses the effect of creative writing efforts based on creative drama method on the writing attitude. Creative Drama Journal, 4(7), 51-68.

Krashen, S. (1993). We learn to write by reading, but writing can make you smarter. Ilha do Desterro A Journal of English Language, Literatures in English and Cultural Studies, 29, 27-38.

Marsh, H. W. (1984). The bias of negative worded items in ratings scales for preadolescent children: A cognitive-developmental phenomenon. Developmental Psychology, 22(1), 28.

Mason, L. H., Harris, K. R. & Graham, S. (2002). Every child has a story to tell: Self-regulated strategy development for story writing. Education and Treatment of Children, 496-506.

Meydan, C. H. & Şeşen, H. (2011). Structural equation modeling and AMOS applications. Ankara: Detay.

Oral, G. (2003). We’re writing again. Ankara: Pegem.

Özdamar, K. (2002). Statistical data analysis with packet programs (multivariate analysis). Eskişehir: Kaan.

Pallant, J. (2007). SPSS survival manual. England: Open University Press.

Rao, Z. (2007). Training in brainstorming and developing writing skills. ELT Journal, 61(2), 100-106.

Robinson, S. O. & Adkins, G. L. (2002). The effects of mathematics methods courses on preservice teachers' attitudes toward mathematics and mathematics teaching. Retrieved from

Sarkhoush, H. (2013). Relationship among Iranian EFL learners self-efficacy in writing, attitude towards writing, writing apprehension and writing performance. Journal of Language Teaching and Research,4(5), 1126-1132.

Schriesheim, C. A. & Hill, K. D. (1981). Controlling acquiescence response bias by item reversals: The effect on questionnaire validity. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 41(4), 1101-1114.

Schumacker, R. E. & Lomax, R. G. (2010). A beginner's guide to structural equation modeling. London: Psychology Press.

Şahin, M. G., & Öztürk, N. B. (2018). Scale development process in educational field: a content analysis research. Kastamonu Education Journal, 26(1), 191-199.

Seçer, İ. (2015). Practical data analysis, analysis and reporting with SPSS and LISREL. Ankara: Anı.

Schwarz, N. (2007). Attitude construction: Evaluation in context. Social Cognition, 25(5), 638-656.

Sherif, M. & Sherif, C. W. (1996). Introduction to social psychology II. Trans: Mustafa Atakay and Aysun Yılmaz. İstanbul: Sosyal.

Street, C. (2003). Pre-service teachers' attitudes about writing and learning to teach writing: Implications for teacher educators. Teacher Education Quarterly, 30, 33-50.

Şencan, H. (2005). Reliability and validity in social and behavioral measurements. Ankara: Seçkin.

Tavşanlı, Ö. F., Bilgin, A., & Yıldırım, K. (2019). Adaptation of writing attitude survey into Turkish language. Journal of Language Education and Research, 5(2), 267-282. Tekin, H. (1996). Measurement and evaluation in education. Ankara: Yargı

Temizkan, M. & Sallabaş, M. E. (2009). Compare the attitudes of teacher candidates related to reading and writing activities. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 8(27), 155-176.

Thorndike, R. M., Thorndike T. (2018). Measurement and evaluation in psychology and education. Trans. Ed.: Mustafa Otrar. Ankara: Nobel.

Thurstone, L. L. (1928). Attitudes can be measured. American journal of Sociology, 33(4), 529-554.

Tompkins, G. E. (1982). Seven reasons why children should write stories. Language Arts, 59(7), 718-721.

Turner, J., & Paris, S. (1995). How literacy tasks influence chil dren's motivation for literacy. The Reading Teacher, 48, 662-673.

Yemez, İ. (2016). By confirmatory factor analysis of the examines structure validity of scale of attitudes towards social media adverstises: a research in Cumhuriyet University, faculty of economics and administrative sciences. Journal of Economics and Administrative Sciences, 17(2), 97-118.

Yıldız, M. & Kaman, Ş. (2016). Analyzing the reading and writing attitudes of the elementary school students (2-6 grade). The Journal of Turkish Social Research, 2, 507-522.




How to Cite

ERTANÖZEN, Nesime, & DURAN, E. (2022). Developing a Story Writing Attitude Scale for Secondary School Students. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 8(1), 84–93.