Self-Regulation Skills and Peer Preferences in Preschool Children

Abstract views: 32 / PDF downloads: 22




Preschool, Self-Regulation Skills, Sociometry, Peer Relation


The main purpose of this study is to detect the predictive impact of self-regulation skills on peer relationships in preschool children. The participants consisted of 165 children of Turkish extraction (between the ages of 5-6). 81 of them were girls and 84 were boys. Self-Regulation Skills Scale for Children aged 4-6 (Teacher Form) and sociometry technique based on peer nomination were utilized. The study results asserted that young children’s self-regulation variables (inhibitory control, attention, working memory) influenced their levels of being positively and significantly liked by peers. Moreover, young children’s self-regulation variables (inhibitory control, attention, working memory) affected their levels of being negatively and significantly disliked by peers. Also, inhibitory control, attention, and working memory significantly predicted the levels of social preference.


Adak Özdemir, A., & Budak, K. S. (2019). The role of temperament and self-regulation on predicting children's play behavior. Pamukkale University Journal of Education, 45, 78-98.

Aksoy, A. B., & Tozduman Yaralı, K. (2017). An analysis of children's self regulations and play skills according to gender. Trakya Journal of Education, 7(2), 442-455.

Anderson, P. (2002). assessment and development of executive function (ef) during childhood. Child Neuropsychology, 8(2), 71-82.

Astarlar, F. (2019). monitoring the self-regulation skills of children aged 4-6 attending pre-school education (Master's Thesis), Pamukkale University, Institute of Educational Sciences, Denizli.

Baddeley, A. (2012). working memory: theories, models, and controversies. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 1-29.

Baddeley, A., & Hitch, G. (2007). Working memory: past, present… and future. N. Osaka, R. H. Logie and M. D’esposito, (Ed.), The cognitive neuroscience of working memory (p. 1-20). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bandy, T., & Moore, K. A. (2010). Assessing self-regulation: a guide for out-ofschool time program practitioners.

Bauer, I. M., & Baumeister, R. F. (2011). Self-regulatory strength. In K. D. Vohs & R. F. Baumeister (Eds.), Baummeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2007). Self-regulation, ego depletion, and motivation. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 10, 1-13.

Baumeister, R. F., Schmeichel, B. J., & Vohs, K. D. (2007). Self-regulation and theexecutive function: the self as controlling agent. In A. W. Kruglanski & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Social psychology: handbook of basic principles (2nd.ed.), (p.1-70).

Berg, Y. H., Lansu, T. A., & Cillessen, A. H. (2015). Measuring social status and social behavior with peer and teacher nomination methods. Social Development, 24 (4), 815-832.

Beyazıt, U. (2019). Examination of the relationship between self-regulation skills and behavioral problems in preschool children. Mediterrane an Journal of Educational Research,13(30), 42-57.

Blair, C., & Raver, C. C. (2015). School readiness and self-regulation: a developmental psychobiological approach. Annual Review of Psychology, 66, 711–731.

Buhs, E.S., Ladd, G.W., & Herald, S.L. (2006). Peer exclusion and victimization: processes that mediate the relation between peer group rejection and children’s classroom engagement and achievement?. Journal Education Psychol, 98, 1–13

Bukowski, W. M., & Hoza, B. (1989). Popularity and friendship: ıssues in theory, measurement, and outcome. In T. J. Berndt & G. W. Ladd (Eds.), Peer Relationships in Child Development (pp. 15–45).

Bukowski, W. M., Laursen, B., & Rubin, K. H. (Eds.). (2018). Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (2nd ed.). The Guilford Press.

Butterworth, G. (2001). Joint visual attention in infancy. In G. Bremner & A. Fogel (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of infant development. Handbooks of developmental psychology (pp. 213–240). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.

Calkins, S. D., Gill, K. L., Johnson, M. C., & Smith, C. L. (1999). Emotional reactivity and emotional regulation strategies as predictors of social behavior with peers during toddlerhood. Social Development, 8, 310-334.

Calkins, S. D. (2007). The emergence of self-regulation: biological and behavioral control mechanisms supporting toddler competencies. In Brownell, C. & Kopp, C. (Eds.) transitions in early socioemotional development: The Toddler Years. (pp.2-45). NY: Guilford Press.

Carlson, S. M., & Wang, T. S. (2007). Inhibitory control and emotion regulation in preschool children. Cognitive Development, 22, 489-510.

Cassidy, J., & Asher, S. R. (1992). Loneliness and peer relations in young children. Child Development, 63, 350-365.

Cederborg, A-C. (2021). Power relations in pre-school children’s play. Early Child Development and Care, 191 (4), 612-623.

Coie, J. D. (1990). Toward a theory of peer rejection. In Asher, S. R., & Coie, J. D. (Eds.), Peer rejection in childhood (pp.365- 401). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Cuevas, K., Rajan, V., & Bryant, L. J. (2018). Emergence of executive function in infancy. In S. A. Wiebe & J. Karbach (Eds.), Executive function: Development across the life span (pp. 25-42). New York: Routledge.

Dan, A. (2016). Supporting and developing self-regulatory behaviours in early childhood in young children with highlevels of ımpulsive behaviour. Contemporary Issues in Education Research, 9(4),189-200.

Diamond, A. (2013). Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 135–168.

Duckworth, A. L., & Kern, M. L. (2011). A Meta-analysis of the convergent validity of self-control measures. Journal of Research in Personality, 45, 259-268.

Eghum-Wilkens, N. D., Fabes, R. A., Castle, S., Zhang, L., Hanish, L. D., & Martin, C. L. (2014). Playing with others: head start children's peer play and relations with kindergarten school competence. Early Child Res Q, 29(3): 345–356.

Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Guthrie, I. K., Murphy, B. C, Maszk, P., Holmgren, R., & Sun, K. (1996). The relations of regulation and emotionality to problem behavior in elementary school children. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 141-162.

Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Guthrie, I. K., & Reiser, M. (2000). dispositional emotionality and regulation: their role in predicting quality of social functioning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(1), 136–157.

Eisenberg, N., Pidada, S.U., & Liew, J. (2001). The relations of regulation and negative emotionality to ındonesian children's social functioning. Child Development. 72, 1747–63.

Eisenberg, N., Smith, C. L., Sadovsky, A., & Spinrad, T. L. (2004). Effortful Control: Relations with emotion regulation, adjustment, and socialization in childhood. R. F. Baumeister & K. D. Vohs (Ed.), Handbook of self-regulation: research, theory, andapplications (pp. 259-282). New York, NY, US: The Guilford Press.

Emre, O., Temiz, A., Tarkoçin, S., & Ulutaş, A. (2020). The relationship between self-regulation skills and loneliness and social dissatisfaction in 60-72 month old children according to teacher evaluation. Journal of Mustafa Kemal University Institute of Social Sciences, 17(45), 124-139.

Erol, A & Gülay Ogelman, H. (2020). Predictor effect of children’s levels of aggression and peer victimization on their levels of being liked by peers. Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Education Journal of Educational Sciences, 11(1), 14-21.

Erwin, P. (2000). Friendship in childhood and adolescence, Translator: Osman Akınhay. İstanbul: Alfa Kitabevi.

Flook, L., Goldberg, S. B., Pinger, L., & Davidson, R. J. (2015). promoting prosocial behavior and self-regulatory skills in preschool children through a mindfulness-based kindness curriculum. Developmental Psychology, 51(1), 44-51.

Gathercole, S. E., Pickering, S. J., Ambridge, B., & Wearing, H. (2004). The structure of working memory from 4 to 15 years of age. Developmental psychology, 40(2), 177.

Gifford-Smith, M. E.,& Brownell, C. A. (2003). childhood peer relationships: social acceptance, friendships and peer networks. Journal of School Psychology, 41, 235-284.

Gillespie, G. L. & Seibel, N. L. (2006). Self-regulation: A cornerstone of early childhood development. YC Young Children, 61(4), 34-39.

Green, V. A, Cillessen, A. H. N., Rechis, R., Patterson, M. M., & Hughes, J. M. (2008). Social problem solving and strategy use in young children. Journal Genet Psychology, 169, 92–112.

Gülay, Ogelman H. (2018). Peer relations in preschool period. Eğiten Kitap: Ankara.

Gülay Ogelman, H. (2019). Sociometry: peer and teacher evaluation. Assessment and recognition of preschool children with examples [in Turkish] in A. Önder (Ed.) (pp. 89-102). Ankara: Egiten Publishing.

Gülay Ogelman, H. (2021). Examining peer relationships of young children in terms of teacher–child relationship. Early Child Development and Care, 191 (16), 2508-2515.

Gülay Ogelman, H., & Fetihi, L. (2021). Examination of the relationship between emotional regulation strategies of 5-year-old children and their peer relationships. Early Child Development and Care, 191(1), 49-57.

Han, W. (2012). Bilingualism and academic achievement. Child Development, 83, 300-321, 10.1111/j.1467-624.2011.01686.x

Harris, R. C., Robinson, J. B., Chang, F., & Burns, B. M. ( 2007 ). Characterizing preschool children's attention regulation in parent–child interactions: the roles of effortful control and motivation. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 28, 25–39.

Hay, D. F. (2006). Yours and mine: Toddlers’ Talk About Possessions with Familiar Peers. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 24, 39-52

Hay, D. F., Payne, A., & Chadwick, A. (2004). Peer relations in childhood. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 45, 84–108.

Howes, C., & Matheson, C. (1992). Sequences in the development of competent play with peers: Social and social pretend play. Developmental Psychology, 28, 961–974.

Hughes, C., White, A. Sharpen, J., & Dunn, J. (2000). Antisocial, angry and unsympathetic: “Hard -to-manage” preschoolers’ peer problems and possible cognitive influences. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 169–179.

Huh, Y., Ahn, D. H., Choi, J. H., Kang, J. Y., Kim, Y. Y., & Oh, K. J. (2003). Development of a child problem behavior screening test. Journal of Kore an Neuropsychiatric Association, 42(6),724-735.

İvrendi, A., & Erol, A. (2018). Self-regulation skills scale for children aged 4-6 (Teacher Form) [Paper presentation]. 1st International Basic Education Congress, Bursa, Turkey.

Johnson, C., Ironsmith, M., Snow, C. W., & Poteat, M. (2000). Peer acceptance and social adjustment in preschool and kindergarten. Early Childhood Education Journal. 27, (4), 207-212.

Keane, P., & Calkins, S. D. (2004). Predicting kindergarten peer social status from toddler and preschool problem behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32 (4), 409-423.

Koole, S. L., van Dillen, L. F. & Sheppes, G. (2011). The self-regulation of emotion. K. D. Vohs and R. F. Baumeister (Ed.), Handbook of self-regulation: research, theory, and applications (2. Baskı) (pp. 22-40). New York: Guilford Press.

Ladd, G. W., Kochenderfer, B. J., & Coleman, C. C. (1997). Classroom peer acceptance, friendship, and victimization: distinct relational systems that contribute uniquely to children’s school adjustment?. Child Development, 68 (6), 1181-1197.

Ladd, G. W., & Burgess, K. B. (2001). Do relational risks and protective factors moderate the linkages between childhood aggression and early psychological and school adjustment?. Child Development, 72 (5), 1579-1601.

Ladd, G. W., Kochenderfer, B. J., & Coleman, C. C. (1996). Friendship quality as a predictor of young children’s early school adjustment. Child Development, 67(3), 1103–1118.

Ladd, G. W., Birch, S. H., & Buhs, E. S. (1999). Children’s social and scholastic lives in kindergarten: related spheres of influence?. Child Development, 70, 1373–1400.

Ladd, G. W., & Burgess, K. B. (1999). Charting the relationship trajectories of aggressive, withdrawn, and aggressive/ withdrawn children during early grade school. Child Development, 70, 910- 929.

Levine, L. E., & Munsch, J. (2014). Social development in child development: an active learning approach (2nd ed.). Canada: Sage.

McCabe, L.A., Cunnington, M., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2004). The development of self-regulation in young children. R.F. Baumeister Ve K.D.Vohs (Ed.). Handbook of the self-regulation: research theory and applications (pp.341-357). Newyork: The Guilford Press.

McClelland, M. M., & Cameron, C. E. (2012). Self-regulation in early childhood: ımproving conceptual clarity and developing ecologically valid measures. Child Development Perspectives, 6 (2), 136-142.

McClelland, M. M., Tominey, S. L., Schmitt, S. A., Hatfield, B., Purpura, D., Gonzales, C., et al. (2019). Red light, purple light! results of an intervention to promote school readiness for children from low-income backgrounds. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 2365.

Mccomas, J. J., Johnson, L., & Symons, F. J. (2005). Teacher and peer responsivity to prosocial behaviour of high aggressors in preschool. Educational Psychology, 25(2-3), 223-231.

Moffitt, T. E., Arseneault, L., Belsky, D., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H., et al.,. (2011). A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. proceedings of the national Academy of Sciences, 108 (7), 2693-2698.

Öztürk, A., Elmastaş, B., & Tekok-Kılıç, A. (2009). Developmental neuropsychological perspective on attention and working memory. M. Irak, (Ed.), Information processing processes in psychopathologies: from theory to practice (pp. 65-90). Ankara: Physicians Publications Association.

Patterson Mallin, M. J. (2003). The impact of maternal expressiveness on child expressiveness and sociometric status. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, De Paul University, Chicago, Illinois. USA

Perry, N. (2019). Recognizing Early Childhood as A Critical Time for developing and supporting self-regulationhttps. Metacognition Learning, 14, 327–334.

Polenski, T. A. (2001). Child characteristics and relations in the family as predictors of peer relationships. university of pittsburgh, PhD Thesis, USA.

Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2000). Toward a physical basis of attention and self- regulation. Pyhsics of life Reviews, 6, 103-120.

Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2009). Developing mechanisms of self-regulation. Development and Psychopthology, 12, 427-441.

Ramani, G. B., Brownell, C. A., & Campbell, S. B. (2010). Positive and negative peer interaction in 3-and 4-year-olds in relation to regulation and dysregulation. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 171 (3), 218-250.

Reijntjes, A. H. A., Stegge, G. T. M., & Meerum Terwogt, M. (2006). Children’s coping with peer rejection: the role of depressive symptoms, social competence, and gender. Infant and Child Development, 15, 89-107.

Robson, D. A., Allen, M. S., & Howard, S. J. (2020). Self-regulation in childhood as a predictor of future outcomes: ameta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 146(4), 324– 354.

Rubin, K. H., Burgess, K. B., Dwyer, K. M., & Hastings, P. D. (2003). Predicting preschoolers' externalizing behaviorsfrom toddler temperament, conflict, and maternal negativity. Developmental Psychology, 39(1), 164 – 176.

Ruff, H. A., & Rothbart, M. K. (1996). Attention in early development: themes and variations. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.

Saraç, S., Abanoz, T., & Gülay Ogelman, H. (2021). Self-regulation predicts young children's peer relations. Turkish International Journal of Special Education and Guidance & Counselling (TIJSEG), 10(1), 56-65.

Schrepferman, L. M., Eby, J., Snyder, J., & Stropes, J. (2006). Early affiliation and social engagement with peers: prospective risk and protective factors for childhood depressive behaviors. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 14, (1), 50-61

Shaw, D. S., Bell, R. Q., & Gilliom, M. (2000). A Truly early starter model of antisocial behavior revisited. Clinical Childand Family Psychology Review, 3(3), 155-172.

Shin, K. M., Cho, S. M., Shin, Y. M., & Park, K. S. (2016). Effects of early childhood peer relationships on adolescent mental health: a 6- to 8-year follow-up study in south korea. Psychiatry Investigation, 13(4), 383-388.

Shonkoff. J. P., & Phillips, D. A. (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: the science of early childhood development. committee on integrating the science of early childhood development, national research council and ınstitute of medicine. Washington DC: National Academy Press.

Skibbe, L. E., Connor, C. M., Morrison, F. J., & Jewkes, A. M. (2011). Schooling effects on preschoolers’ self-regulation, early literacy and language growth. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26(1), 42–49.

Smith, P.K., Cowie, H., & Blades, M.(2005). Understanding children's development. USA: Blackwell Publishing. Staub.

Snyder, J., Prichard, J., Schrepferman, L., Patrick, M. R., & Stoolmiller, M. (2004). Child impulsiveness in attention, early peer experiences, and the development of early on set conduct problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32 (6), 579- 594.

Storbeck, J., & Maswood, R. (2016). Happiness increases verbal and spatial working memory capacity where sadness does not: emotion, working memory and executive control. Cognition and Emotion, 30(5), 925-938.

Striano, T., & Rochat, P. (1999). Developmental links between dyadic and triadic social competence in infancy. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 17, 563– 584.

Tabachnick, B. G. & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics. Boston: Pearson.

Tozduman Yaralı, K. & Güngör Aytar, F. A. (2017). Examination of preschool children's behaviors in terms of self-regulation skills. Journal of Mersin University Faculty of Education, 13(3), 856-870.

Tuzcuoğlu, N., Efe Azkeskin, K., İlçi Küsmüş, G., & Cengiz, Ö. (2019). Investigation of the relationship between self-regulation skills and self-perceptions of preschool children. IBAD Journal of Social Sciences, 607-623. DOI: 10.21733/ibad.613920.

Vasseleu, E., Neilsen-Hewett, C., Ehrich, J., Cliff, K., & Howard, S. J. (2021). Educator beliefs around supporting early self-regulation: development and evaluation of the self-regulation knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy scale. Frontiers in Education, 6(3).

Yurdakul, Y., Beyazıt, U., & Bütün Ayhan, A. (2021). Investigation of the relationship between emotion regulation skills and ınteractive play behaviors in preschool children. Afyon Kocatepe University Journal of Social Sciences, 23 (4), 1291-1307. DOI: 10.32709/akusosbil.874538

Watson, A. J., & Bell, M. A. (2013). Individual differences in ınhibitory control skills at three years of age. Developmental Neuropsychology, 38(1), 1-21.

Wentzel, K. R. (2017). Peer relationships, motivation, and academic performance at school. In A. J. Elliot, C. S. Dweck, & D. S. Yeager(Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation: theory and application (p. 586–603). The Guilford Press.

Whitebread, D., & Basilio, M. (2012). The emergence of early development of self regulation in young Children. Profesorado, 116 (1), 15-33.




How to Cite

Liman, B. (2024). Self-Regulation Skills and Peer Preferences in Preschool Children. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 11(1), 131–142.