Examination of the Effectiveness of EMDR Intervention in Children with Animal Phobias: Case Study

Examination of the Effectiveness of EMDR Intervention


Abstract views: 56 / PDF downloads: 45

Authors

Keywords:

Animal phobia in children, EMDR intervention, case study

Abstract

This study aims to examine the effectiveness of EMDR interventions for two different children with animal phobias through case studies. In the interventions conducted with the children in this study, facilitative techniques such as allowing the children to express themselves through drawings were utilized in addition to EMDR procedures. The study utilized a multiple case study design, which is among qualitative research methods. One of the cases is a 9-year-old boy who developed a phobic condition related to dogs after being attacked by a dog and experiencing psychological distress associated with his dog phobia in daily life (such as running towards home, increased heart rate, screaming when seeing a dog on his way home from school). The second case is a 10-year-old boy who developed a phobic condition related to insects after being stung by a bug while sleeping and experiencing fear of bugs in nature, such as during a picnic, and having difficulties sleeping alone. In this study, narrative analysis was utilized in the data analysis to describe the experiences of Client-1 and Client-2 regarding their phobic conditions and to present their narratives related to EMDR intervention in a chronological and holistic manner. According to the research findings, EMDR interventions conducted with two children (C1 and C2) who had animal phobias were found to have a positive impact on their phobic conditions.

References

Adler-Tapia, R., & Settle, C. (2008). EMDR and the art of psychotherapy with children: treatment manual. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Amerikan Psikiyatri Birliği (2014). Ruhsal bozuklukların tanısal ve sayımsal elkitabı, beşinci baskı (DSM-5) [Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, (5th ed.) (DSM-5)] (E. Köroğlu, Trans.). Ankara: Hekimler Yayın Birliği. (Original work published 2013).

Bal, H. (2010). İlköğretim I. kademe öğrencilerinin korkuları ve gelişimsel özellikleri [The fears of elemantary school fırst degree students and their development process]. (Master dissertation). Sakarya University, Sakarya, Turkey.

Bayhan, B. B., Tarquinio, C., Rydberg, J., & Korkmazlar, Ü. (2022). The study of the group intervention containing EMDR therapy for children and mothers in the field of trauma after a mine explosion in Turkey. European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 6(1), 100248, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejtd.2021.100248

Burris, J. (2005). Understanding children’s reactions to loss: A holistic approach. In F. K. O. Yuen (Ed.), Social work practice with children and families. A family approach (pp. 89-109). New York, NY: Haworth Social Work Practice Press.

Creswell, J. W. (2018). Nitel araştırma yöntemleri beş yaklaşıma göre nitel araştırma ve araştırma deseni [Qualitative inquiry & research design choosing among five approaches] (M. Bütün ve S. B. Demir, Çev. Ed.). Ankara: Siyasal Kitabevi. (Original work published 2013).

Davis III, T. E., Ollendick, T. H., & Öst, L.-G. (2009). Intensive treatment of specific phobias in children and adolescents. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 16(3), 294-303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2008.12.008

de Jongh, A., Holmshaw, M., Carswell, W., & van Wijk, A. (2011). Usefulness of a trauma-focused treatment approach for travel phobia. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 18(2), 124-137. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.680

de Roos, C., & de Jongh, A. (2008). EMDR treatment of children and adolescents with a choking phobia. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(3), 201-211. https://doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.2.3.201

Erden, G., Kılıç, E. Z., Uslu, R. İ., & Kerimoğlu, E. (1999). Çocuklar için travma sonrası stres tepki ölçeği: Türkçe geçerlik, güvenirlik ön çalışması. Çocuk ve Gençlik Ruh Sağlığı Dergisi, 6(3), 143-149.

Faretta, E., & Dal Farra, M. (2019). Efficacy of EMDR therapy for anxiety disorders. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(4), 325-332. https://doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.13.4.325

Farrell, L. J., Miyamoto, T., Donovan, C. L., Waters, A. M., Krisch, K. A., & Ollendick, T. H. (2021). Virtual reality one-session treatment of child-specific phobia of dogs: A controlled, multiple baseline case series. Behavior Therapy, 52(2), 478-491. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2020.06.003

Ferrari, M. (1986). Fears and phobias in childhood: Some clinical and developmental considerations. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 17(2), 75-87.

Gilmartin, M. R., Balderston, N. L., & Helmstetter, F. J. (2014). Prefrontal cortical regulation of fear learning. Trends in Neurosciences, 37(8), 455-464. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2014.05.004

Greenwald, R. (2004). Eye Movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in child and adolescent psychotherapy. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.

Helmstetter, F. J. (1992). Contribution of the amygdala to learning and performance of conditional fear. Physiology & Behavior, 51(6), 1271-1276. https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9384(92)90320-2

Imširović, F., Omeragić, I., & Hasanović, M. (2021). Application of EMDR Therapy in Treatment of Fear for an Adult, Caused by Traumatic Experience during Childhood: Case Report. Psychiatria Danubina, 33(suppl 1), 83-87.

Jarero, I., Artigas, L., & Hartung, J. (2006). EMDR integrative group treatment protocol: A postdisaster trauma intervention for children and adults. Traumatology, 12(2), 121-129. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534765606294561

Kavakçı, Ö. (2012). Ruhsal travma tedavisi için EMDR. Ankara: HYB Yayıncılık.

King, N. J., Clowes-Hollins, V., & Ollendick, T. H. (1997). The etiology of childhood dog phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35(1), 77. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(96)00067-8

King, N. J., Muris, P., & Ollendick, T. H. (2005). Childhood fears and phobias: Assessment and treatment. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 10(2), 50-56. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-3588.2005.00118.x

Klaff, F. (2016). EMDR therapy as portal to a child's processing of a medical condition: A case study and session deconstruction. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 10(3), 189-198. https://doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.10.3.189

Kokanović, I., & Barron, I. (2021). Efficacy of EMDR: Case study of a child with choking phobia-case report. Psychiatria Danubina, 33(suppl 1), 33-41.

Maren, S. (2003). The amygdala, synaptic plasticity, and fear memory. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 985(1), 106-113. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2003.tb07075.x

May, A. C., Ruddy, B. M., Davis, T. E., & Matson, J. L. (2013). Evidence-based behavioral treatment of dog phobia with young children: Two case examples. Behavior Modification, 37(1). https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445512458524

Meentken, M. G., van der Mheen, M., van Beynum, I. M., Aendekerk, E. W., Legerstee, J. S., van der Ende, J., ... & Utens, E. M. (2020). EMDR for children with medically related subthreshold PTSD: short-term effects on PTSD, blood-injection-injury phobia, depression and sleep. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11(1), 1705598. https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2019.1705598

Ollendick, T. H., King, N. J., & Muris, P. (2002). Fears and phobias in children: Phenomenology, epidemiology, and aetiology. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 7(3), 98-106. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-3588.00019

Pynoos, R. S., Frederick, C., Nader, K., Arroyo, W., Steinberg, A., Eth, S., Nunez, F., & Fairbanks, L. (1987). Life threat and posttraumatic stress in school-age children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44(12), 1057–1063. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1987.01800240031005

Qorbanpoor lafmejani, A., Samadi Biniaz, D., & Rezaei, S. (2020). The effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and social adjustment in female students with social phobia. International Journal of Psychology (IPA), 14(1), 192-226. https://doi.org/10.22034/ijpb.2020.170331.1086

Rachidi, L., Jbilou, W., Youssra, A., Aftahi, F., Serhani, H., & Benjelloun, G. (2022). Phagophobia in a 6-year-old child: Case report. Clinical Medicine and Health Research Journal (CMHRJ), 2(5), 195-197.

Rousseau, P. F., El Khoury-Malhame, M. E., Reynaud, E., Boukezzi, S., Cancel, A., Zendjidjian, X., ... & Khalfa, S. (2019). Fear extinction learning improvement in PTSD after EMDR therapy: An fMRI study. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 10(1), 1568132. https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2019.1568132

Schmidt, S. J. (1999). Resource-focused EMDR: Integration of ego state therapy, alternating bilateral stimulation, and art therapy. Emdria Newsletter, 4(1), 8-26.

Shapiro, E. (2012). EMDR and early psychological intervention following trauma. European Review of Applied Psychology, 62(4), 241-251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erap.2012.09.003

Shapiro, F. (2002). EMDR 12 years after its introduction: Past and future research. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(1), 1-22.

Sheikhi, M., Moradi, M., Shahsavary, S., Alimoradi, Z., & Salimi, H. R. (2020). The effect of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing on the fear of hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized clinical trial. BMC Psychology, 8, 1-8.

Steele, W., & Kuban, C. (2013). Working with grieving and traumatized children and adolescents. Discovering what matters most through evidence-based, sensory interventions. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.

Ten Hoor, N. M. (2013). Treating cognitive distortions with EMDR: A case study of a sex offender. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 12(2), 139-148. https://doi.org/10.1080/14999013.2013.791350

Tinker, R. H., & Wilson, S. A. (1999). Through the eyes of a child: EMDR with children. W W Norton & Co.

Uğuz Arsu, Ş., & Tekindal, M. (2021). Nitel araştırmalarda anlatı araştırmasının tanımı, kapsamı ve süreci [Definition, scope and process narrative research in qualitative research]. Ufkun Ötesi Bilim Dergisi, 21(1), 85-124.

van Dijke, A., Hopman, J. A. B., & Ford, J. D. (2018). Affect dysregulation, psychoform dissociation, and adult relational fears mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and complex posttraumatic stress disorder independent of the symptoms of borderline personality disorder. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 9(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2017.1400878

Vuþina, T. (2021). EMDR Treatment of Phobia of Thirteen Years Old Girl-Case Study. Psychiatria Danubina, 33(suppl 1), 46-48.

Weems, C. F., Silverman, W. K., Saavedra, L. M., Pina, A. A., & Lumpkin, P. W. (1999). The discrimination of children's phobias using the revised fear survey schedule for children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40(6), 941-952. https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.00511

Wizansky, B. (2007). Resource connection in EMDR work with children. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 1(1), 57-63.

Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2013). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri [Qualitative research methods in social sciences]. Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.

Downloads

Published

2023-10-20

How to Cite

Mukba, G. (2023). Examination of the Effectiveness of EMDR Intervention in Children with Animal Phobias: Case Study : Examination of the Effectiveness of EMDR Intervention. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 10(4), 845–859. Retrieved from https://ijcer.net/index.php/pub/article/view/484

Issue

Section

Articles