The Integration of 21st Century Skills into Secondary School English Classes and the Challenges faced by Teachers

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21st Century Skills, 21st century teaching skills, 21st century skills in English language teaching, The challenged of the teachers, Secondary school English language teachers


The aim of this study is to examine the utilization of 21st century skills by secondary school English language teachers and to investigate whether their background has a role in using these skills. The study also aims to shed light on the challenges teachers face when integrating these skills into their teaching practices. A mixed-methods research design, which incorporates the scale and interviews, was used to accomplish the aims of the study. The data were obtained online using 21st Century Teaching and Learning scale developed by Hixson, Ravitz, and Whisman (2012) and semi-structured interviews. A total of 119 teachers were reached using convenience and snowball sampling methods, with 26 of them participating in the interviews. The quantitative findings of the study showed that teachers used 21st century skills approximately once or three times a month, and the most used skill was using technology as a tool for learning, while local connections were the least. According to the t-test results, a significant difference was found in the use of these skills between private and public school teachers, with private school teachers employing these skills more frequently than their public school counterparts. Furthermore, it was revealed that teachers who received 21st century skills training integrated some of the 21st century skills into their lessons more often than those who did not. In addition, it was found that years of experience played a role in the implementation of these skills. According to the post-hoc test, less experienced teachers integrated 21st century skills more frequently than more experienced teachers. On the other hand, the teachers’ educational backgrounds did not show any significant difference in using these skills. According to the findings obtained from the content analysis of the interviews, the lack of qualified in-per service training on 21st century skills, poor curricula, lack of required materials and infrastructure, and unsupportive attitudes of the administrators were the challenges encountered by teachers.


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How to Cite

Bolat, Y., & Deneme Gençoğlu, S. (2024). The Integration of 21st Century Skills into Secondary School English Classes and the Challenges faced by Teachers. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 11(1), 36–54.