Examining Non-cognitive Factors Predicting Reading Achievement in Turkey: Evidence from PISA 2018

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  • Pınar KARAMAN


Reading achievement, Hierarchical linear models, Meta-cognitive strategies, Adaptive instruction, Teacher-directed instruction


The purpose of the study was to investigate how student and teacher-related non-cognitive variables were important factors on the reading performances of Turkish students in PISA 2018. The results of the HLM analysis revealed that economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) as backround variable was considered an effective predictor of student and school reading achievement. Meta-cognitive stratejies were the most influential variables among the students’ non-cognitive variables. Besides, most of the teacher-related non-cognitive factors had significant impacts on reading achievement even after controlling all student related and backround variables. Teachers’ instructional behaviours such as adaptive instruction and teacher-directed instruction have much more influence on reading performance than other teacher behaviors. The results suggeted that fostering soft skills are essential for both students and teachers.

Author Biography


Corresponding Author: Pınar Karaman, pkaraman1626@gmail.com



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How to Cite

KARAMAN, P. (2022). Examining Non-cognitive Factors Predicting Reading Achievement in Turkey: Evidence from PISA 2018. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 9(3), 450–459. Retrieved from https://ijcer.net/index.php/pub/article/view/250