Research Article
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Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, 179 - 190, 15.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.1004241

Abstract

References

  • Ansari, M., & Yousefabad, S. A. (2020). Potential threats of COVID-19 on quarantined families. Public Health, 183, 1. doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2020.04.014
  • Axelsson, A. K., Granlund, M., & Wilder, J. (2013). Engagement in family activities: a quantitative, comparative study of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities and children with typical development. Child: Care, Health and Development, 39(4), 523–534.
  • Bourke-Taylor, H., Cotter, C., & Stephan, R. (2015). Complementary, alternative, and mainstream service use among families with young children with multiple disabilities: Family costs to access choices. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 35(3), 311–325. https://doi.org/10.3109/01942638.2014.975312
  • Brody, J. J. (2015). Decreasing the pervasive achievement gap between Latino and White students through targeted school-based, family-centered interventions. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Oregon Graduate School
  • Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Harvard University Press.
  • Brooks, S. K., Webster, R. K., Smith, L. E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., & Rubin, G. J. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet, 395(10227), 912–920. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8
  • Buzzi, C., Tucci, M., Ciprandi, R., Brambilla, I., Caimmi, S., Ciprandi, G., & Marseglia, G. L. (2020). The psycho-social effects of COVID-19 on Italian adolescents’ attitudes and behaviors. Italian Journal of Pediatrics, 46(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13052-020-00833-4
  • Cameron, D. (2001). Working with spoken discourse. Sage.
  • Can, E. (2020). Coronavirüs (Covid-19) pandemisi ve pedagojik yansımaları: Türkiye’de açık ve uzaktan eğitim uygulamaları [Coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic and pedagogical reflections: Open and distance education applications in Turkey]. Açıköğretim Uygulamaları ve Araştırmaları Dergisi, 6(2), 11–53. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/auad/issue/55662/761354
  • Cavkaytar, A., Ardıç, A., & Aksoy, V. (2014). Aile gereksinimlerini belirleme aracının geçerlik ve güvenirliğinin güncellenmesi. [Revaluation of the Reliability and Validity on the Family Needs Survey]. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Özel Eğitim Dergisi, 15(2), 1–12.
  • Çelebi, Z. İ. (2019). Reflections of informing parents of children with special needs during the diagnostic and guidance process on transition into special educational services [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Dokuz Eylül University. Cercone, K. (2008). Characteristics of adult learners with implications for online learning design. AACE Journal, 16(2), 137–159.
  • Chang, G.-C., & Yano, S. (2020). How are countries addressing the Covid-19 challenges in education? A snapshot of policy measures. In World Education Blog. https://gemreportunesco.wordpress.com/2020/03/24/how-are-countries-addressing-the-covid-19-challenges-in-education-a-snapshot-of-policy-measures/
  • Coates, J. (2007). Talk in a play frame: More on laughter and intimacy. Journal of Pragmatics, 39, 29–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2006.05.003
  • Courtenay, K. (2020). Covid-19: Challenges for people with intellectual disability. The BMJ, 369. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1609
  • Courtenay, K., & Perera, B. (2020). COVID-19 and people with intellectual disability: Impacts of a pandemic. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine, 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1017/ipm.2020.45
  • Creswell, J. (2013). Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. In Research design. Sage publications. https://doi.org/10.2307/3152153
  • Daniel, S. J. (2020). Education and the COVID-19 pandemic. Prospects, 1–6.
  • Drew P., & Heritage J. (1992). Analysing talk at work: An introduction. In P. Drew, & J. Heritage (Eds.), Talk at work (pp. 3–65). Cambridge University Press.
  • Eldeniz Çetin, M., & Sönmez, M. (2018). Identification of the problems experienced by mothers with children with multiple disabilities. Elementary Education Online, 17(3), 1252–1267. https://doi.org/10.17051/ilkonline.2018.466339
  • Esentürk, O. K. (2020). Parents’ perceptions on physical activity for their children with autism spectrum disorders during the novel Coronavirus outbreak. International Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/20473869.2020.1769333
  • Fisher, J., Languilaire, J.-C., Lawthom, R., Nieuwenhuis, R., Petts, R. J., Runswick-Cole, K., & Yerkes, M. A. (2020). Community, work, and family in times of COVID-19. Community, Work & Family, 23(3), 247–252. https://doi.org/10.1080/13668803.2020.1756568
  • Ghosh, S., & Parish, S. (2013). Prevalence and economic well-being of families raising multiple children with disabilities. Children and Youth Services Review, 35(9), 1431–1439. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2013.05.018
  • Hanson, M., & Espinosa, L. (2016). Culture, ethnicity, and linguistic diversity: Implications for early childhood special education. In Handbook of early childhood special education (pp. 455–471). Springer.
  • Hart, J. L., Turnbull, A. E., Oppenheim, I. M., & Courtright, K. R. (2020). Family-centered care during the COVID-19 era. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 60(2), 93–97. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.04.017
  • Hawryluck, L., Gold, W. L., Robinson, S., Pogorski, S., Galea, S., & Styra, R. (2004). SARS control and psychological effects of quarantine, Toronto, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(7), 1206–1212. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1007.030703
  • Kaiser, A. P., & Hancock, T. B. (2003). Teaching parents new skills to support their young children’s development. Infants and Young Children, 16(1), 9–21. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001163-200301000-00003
  • Kumar, S., & Casey, A. (2020). Work and intimate partner violence: powerful role of work in the empowerment process for middle-class women in abusive relationships. Community, Work and Family, 23(1), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/13668803.2017.1365693
  • Li, S., Wang, Y., Xue, J., Zhao, N., & Zhu, T. (2020). The impact of covid-19 epidemic declaration on psychological consequences: A study on active weibo users. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(6:2032), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062032
  • Luijkx, J., van der Putten, A. A. J., & Vlaskamp, C. (2019). A valuable burden? The impact of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities on family life. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 44(2), 184–189. https://doi.org/10.3109/13668250.2017.1326588
  • Majnemer, A., Shikako-Thomas, K., Shevell, M. I., Poulin, C., Lach, L., Schmitz, N., & Law, M. (2013). Pursuit of complementary and alternative medicine treatments in adolescents with cerebral palsy. Journal of Child Neurology, 28(11), 1443–1447. https://doi.org/10.1177/0883073813488942
  • Mednick, M. (2007). Supporting children with multiple disabilities. Continum International Publishing Group.
  • Merriam, S.B., & Caffarella, R.S. (1999). Learning in adulthood (2nd ed.). Jossey-Bass.
  • Mesa Vieira, C., Franco, O. H., Gómez Restrepo, C., & Abel, T. (2020). COVID-19: The forgotten priorities of the pandemic. Maturitas, 136, 38–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2020.04.004
  • Nakken, H., & Vlaskamp, C. (2007). A Need for a taxonomy for profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 4(2), 83–87. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-1130.2007.00104.x
  • Narzisi, A. (2020). Handle the autism spectrum condition during coronavirus (Covid-19) stay at home period: Ten tips for helping parents and caregivers of young children. Brain Sciences, 10(4:207), 1–4. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10040207
  • Reimers, F.M. & Schleicher, A. (2020). A framework to guide an education response to the COVID-19 Pandemic of 2020. OECD 2020. https://globaled.gse.harvard.edu/files/geii/files/framework_guide_v1_002.pdf
  • Pfefferbaum, B., & North, C. S. (2020). Mental health and the Covid-19 pandemic. New England Journal of Medicine, 383(6), 510–512. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp2008017.
  • Qi, F., & Hu, L. (2020). Including people with disability in the COVID-19 outbreak emergency preparedness and response in China. Disability and Society, 35(5), 848–853. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2020.1752622
  • Sardohan Yildirim, A. E. (2017). Examining the process of strengthening families of children with multiple disability via family centered education model [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Ankara University.
  • Sood, S. (2020). Psychological effects of the Coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic. Research & Humanities in Medical Education, 7, 23–26. https://www.rhime.in/ojs/index.php/rhime/article/view/264
  • Turk, M. A., & McDermott, S. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic and people with disability. Disability and Health Journal, 13(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dhjo.2020.100944
  • van Timmeren, E. A., van der Putten, A. A. J., van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H. M. J., van der Schans, C. P., & Waninge, A. (2016). Prevalence of reported physical health problems in people with severe or profound intellectual and motor disabilities: a cross-sectional study of medical records and care plans. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 60(11), 1109–1118. https://doi.org/10.1111/jir.12298
  • Wang, P., & Michaels, C. A. (2009). Chinese families of children with severe disabilities: Family needs and available support. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 34(2), 21–32.
  • World Health Organisation (WHO). (2020). No Title. https://www.who.int/emergencies/ diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/events-as-they-happen
  • Yates, A. (2012). Supporting parents of young children with severe disabilities: An action research study. Fielding Graduate University.
  • Yıldırım, Ş., Karahan, S., Demiröz, K., Şener Ö. ve Özaydın, L. (2020). Kovid-19 sürecinde özel gereksinimli çocukların ebeveynlerinin ihtiyaçları [The needs of the parents of children with special disabilities during the Covid-19 outbreak process]. The Proceeding of International Conference on Covid-19 Studies (pp. 369–370).
  • Yin. R. K. (2014). Case Study Research Design and Methods (5th ed.). Sage.
  • Zhang, J., Shuai, L., Yu, H., Wang, Z., Qiu, M., Lu, L., Cao, X., Xia, W., Wang, Y., & Chen, R. (2020). Acute stress, behavioural symptoms and mood states among school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder during the COVID-19 outbreak. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 51(102077), 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102077
  • Zhou, X., Snoswell, C. L., Harding, L. E., Bambling, M., Edirippulige, S., Bai, X., & Smith, A. C. (2020). The role of telehealth in reducing the mental health burden from COVID-19. Telemedicine and E-Health, 26(4), 377–379. https://doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2020.0068

A Family Education Intervention for Parents Having Children with Multiple Disabilities during COVID-19

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, 179 - 190, 15.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.1004241

Abstract

During the COVID-19 pandemic, it has been observed that the education stakeholders including families are caught unprepared. For this reason, it is thought that determining families’ educational needs regarding their children with multiple disabilities in the quarantine period are essential. In this study, it was aimed to determine the contribution of “Family Education Intervention in Pandemic” (FEIP) Training to families and their multiple disabled children. In the research, a multiple case study approach was used. Four mothers participated in the study. Online training in the study was carried out in 8 sessions. The data from the research were collected from multiple sources and analysed inductively by the triangulation method. In the research, it was revealed that FEIP supported mothers to realize their children's strengths, to increase their positive parenting skills, and to feel themselves competent in the daily routines of their child during the COVID-19 period.

References

  • Ansari, M., & Yousefabad, S. A. (2020). Potential threats of COVID-19 on quarantined families. Public Health, 183, 1. doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2020.04.014
  • Axelsson, A. K., Granlund, M., & Wilder, J. (2013). Engagement in family activities: a quantitative, comparative study of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities and children with typical development. Child: Care, Health and Development, 39(4), 523–534.
  • Bourke-Taylor, H., Cotter, C., & Stephan, R. (2015). Complementary, alternative, and mainstream service use among families with young children with multiple disabilities: Family costs to access choices. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 35(3), 311–325. https://doi.org/10.3109/01942638.2014.975312
  • Brody, J. J. (2015). Decreasing the pervasive achievement gap between Latino and White students through targeted school-based, family-centered interventions. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Oregon Graduate School
  • Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Harvard University Press.
  • Brooks, S. K., Webster, R. K., Smith, L. E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., & Rubin, G. J. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet, 395(10227), 912–920. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8
  • Buzzi, C., Tucci, M., Ciprandi, R., Brambilla, I., Caimmi, S., Ciprandi, G., & Marseglia, G. L. (2020). The psycho-social effects of COVID-19 on Italian adolescents’ attitudes and behaviors. Italian Journal of Pediatrics, 46(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13052-020-00833-4
  • Cameron, D. (2001). Working with spoken discourse. Sage.
  • Can, E. (2020). Coronavirüs (Covid-19) pandemisi ve pedagojik yansımaları: Türkiye’de açık ve uzaktan eğitim uygulamaları [Coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic and pedagogical reflections: Open and distance education applications in Turkey]. Açıköğretim Uygulamaları ve Araştırmaları Dergisi, 6(2), 11–53. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/auad/issue/55662/761354
  • Cavkaytar, A., Ardıç, A., & Aksoy, V. (2014). Aile gereksinimlerini belirleme aracının geçerlik ve güvenirliğinin güncellenmesi. [Revaluation of the Reliability and Validity on the Family Needs Survey]. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Özel Eğitim Dergisi, 15(2), 1–12.
  • Çelebi, Z. İ. (2019). Reflections of informing parents of children with special needs during the diagnostic and guidance process on transition into special educational services [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Dokuz Eylül University. Cercone, K. (2008). Characteristics of adult learners with implications for online learning design. AACE Journal, 16(2), 137–159.
  • Chang, G.-C., & Yano, S. (2020). How are countries addressing the Covid-19 challenges in education? A snapshot of policy measures. In World Education Blog. https://gemreportunesco.wordpress.com/2020/03/24/how-are-countries-addressing-the-covid-19-challenges-in-education-a-snapshot-of-policy-measures/
  • Coates, J. (2007). Talk in a play frame: More on laughter and intimacy. Journal of Pragmatics, 39, 29–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2006.05.003
  • Courtenay, K. (2020). Covid-19: Challenges for people with intellectual disability. The BMJ, 369. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1609
  • Courtenay, K., & Perera, B. (2020). COVID-19 and people with intellectual disability: Impacts of a pandemic. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine, 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1017/ipm.2020.45
  • Creswell, J. (2013). Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. In Research design. Sage publications. https://doi.org/10.2307/3152153
  • Daniel, S. J. (2020). Education and the COVID-19 pandemic. Prospects, 1–6.
  • Drew P., & Heritage J. (1992). Analysing talk at work: An introduction. In P. Drew, & J. Heritage (Eds.), Talk at work (pp. 3–65). Cambridge University Press.
  • Eldeniz Çetin, M., & Sönmez, M. (2018). Identification of the problems experienced by mothers with children with multiple disabilities. Elementary Education Online, 17(3), 1252–1267. https://doi.org/10.17051/ilkonline.2018.466339
  • Esentürk, O. K. (2020). Parents’ perceptions on physical activity for their children with autism spectrum disorders during the novel Coronavirus outbreak. International Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/20473869.2020.1769333
  • Fisher, J., Languilaire, J.-C., Lawthom, R., Nieuwenhuis, R., Petts, R. J., Runswick-Cole, K., & Yerkes, M. A. (2020). Community, work, and family in times of COVID-19. Community, Work & Family, 23(3), 247–252. https://doi.org/10.1080/13668803.2020.1756568
  • Ghosh, S., & Parish, S. (2013). Prevalence and economic well-being of families raising multiple children with disabilities. Children and Youth Services Review, 35(9), 1431–1439. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2013.05.018
  • Hanson, M., & Espinosa, L. (2016). Culture, ethnicity, and linguistic diversity: Implications for early childhood special education. In Handbook of early childhood special education (pp. 455–471). Springer.
  • Hart, J. L., Turnbull, A. E., Oppenheim, I. M., & Courtright, K. R. (2020). Family-centered care during the COVID-19 era. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 60(2), 93–97. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.04.017
  • Hawryluck, L., Gold, W. L., Robinson, S., Pogorski, S., Galea, S., & Styra, R. (2004). SARS control and psychological effects of quarantine, Toronto, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(7), 1206–1212. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1007.030703
  • Kaiser, A. P., & Hancock, T. B. (2003). Teaching parents new skills to support their young children’s development. Infants and Young Children, 16(1), 9–21. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001163-200301000-00003
  • Kumar, S., & Casey, A. (2020). Work and intimate partner violence: powerful role of work in the empowerment process for middle-class women in abusive relationships. Community, Work and Family, 23(1), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/13668803.2017.1365693
  • Li, S., Wang, Y., Xue, J., Zhao, N., & Zhu, T. (2020). The impact of covid-19 epidemic declaration on psychological consequences: A study on active weibo users. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(6:2032), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062032
  • Luijkx, J., van der Putten, A. A. J., & Vlaskamp, C. (2019). A valuable burden? The impact of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities on family life. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 44(2), 184–189. https://doi.org/10.3109/13668250.2017.1326588
  • Majnemer, A., Shikako-Thomas, K., Shevell, M. I., Poulin, C., Lach, L., Schmitz, N., & Law, M. (2013). Pursuit of complementary and alternative medicine treatments in adolescents with cerebral palsy. Journal of Child Neurology, 28(11), 1443–1447. https://doi.org/10.1177/0883073813488942
  • Mednick, M. (2007). Supporting children with multiple disabilities. Continum International Publishing Group.
  • Merriam, S.B., & Caffarella, R.S. (1999). Learning in adulthood (2nd ed.). Jossey-Bass.
  • Mesa Vieira, C., Franco, O. H., Gómez Restrepo, C., & Abel, T. (2020). COVID-19: The forgotten priorities of the pandemic. Maturitas, 136, 38–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2020.04.004
  • Nakken, H., & Vlaskamp, C. (2007). A Need for a taxonomy for profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 4(2), 83–87. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-1130.2007.00104.x
  • Narzisi, A. (2020). Handle the autism spectrum condition during coronavirus (Covid-19) stay at home period: Ten tips for helping parents and caregivers of young children. Brain Sciences, 10(4:207), 1–4. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10040207
  • Reimers, F.M. & Schleicher, A. (2020). A framework to guide an education response to the COVID-19 Pandemic of 2020. OECD 2020. https://globaled.gse.harvard.edu/files/geii/files/framework_guide_v1_002.pdf
  • Pfefferbaum, B., & North, C. S. (2020). Mental health and the Covid-19 pandemic. New England Journal of Medicine, 383(6), 510–512. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp2008017.
  • Qi, F., & Hu, L. (2020). Including people with disability in the COVID-19 outbreak emergency preparedness and response in China. Disability and Society, 35(5), 848–853. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2020.1752622
  • Sardohan Yildirim, A. E. (2017). Examining the process of strengthening families of children with multiple disability via family centered education model [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Ankara University.
  • Sood, S. (2020). Psychological effects of the Coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic. Research & Humanities in Medical Education, 7, 23–26. https://www.rhime.in/ojs/index.php/rhime/article/view/264
  • Turk, M. A., & McDermott, S. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic and people with disability. Disability and Health Journal, 13(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dhjo.2020.100944
  • van Timmeren, E. A., van der Putten, A. A. J., van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H. M. J., van der Schans, C. P., & Waninge, A. (2016). Prevalence of reported physical health problems in people with severe or profound intellectual and motor disabilities: a cross-sectional study of medical records and care plans. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 60(11), 1109–1118. https://doi.org/10.1111/jir.12298
  • Wang, P., & Michaels, C. A. (2009). Chinese families of children with severe disabilities: Family needs and available support. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 34(2), 21–32.
  • World Health Organisation (WHO). (2020). No Title. https://www.who.int/emergencies/ diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/events-as-they-happen
  • Yates, A. (2012). Supporting parents of young children with severe disabilities: An action research study. Fielding Graduate University.
  • Yıldırım, Ş., Karahan, S., Demiröz, K., Şener Ö. ve Özaydın, L. (2020). Kovid-19 sürecinde özel gereksinimli çocukların ebeveynlerinin ihtiyaçları [The needs of the parents of children with special disabilities during the Covid-19 outbreak process]. The Proceeding of International Conference on Covid-19 Studies (pp. 369–370).
  • Yin. R. K. (2014). Case Study Research Design and Methods (5th ed.). Sage.
  • Zhang, J., Shuai, L., Yu, H., Wang, Z., Qiu, M., Lu, L., Cao, X., Xia, W., Wang, Y., & Chen, R. (2020). Acute stress, behavioural symptoms and mood states among school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder during the COVID-19 outbreak. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 51(102077), 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102077
  • Zhou, X., Snoswell, C. L., Harding, L. E., Bambling, M., Edirippulige, S., Bai, X., & Smith, A. C. (2020). The role of telehealth in reducing the mental health burden from COVID-19. Telemedicine and E-Health, 26(4), 377–379. https://doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2020.0068

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Adile Emel SARDOHAN YILDIRIM> (Primary Author)
Akdeniz Üniversitesi
0000-0002-2393-299X
Türkiye


Rabia VEZNE>
Akdeniz University
0000-0002-0137-3613
Türkiye

Publication Date March 15, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1

Cite

APA Sardohan Yıldırım, A. E. & Vezne, R. (2022). A Family Education Intervention for Parents Having Children with Multiple Disabilities during COVID-19 . International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research , 9 (1) , 179-190 . DOI: 10.33200/ijcer.1004241

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