Research Article
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Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, 204 - 218, 15.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.1025710

Abstract

References

  • Adams, K. L., & Hambright, W. G. (2004). Encouraged or discouraged? Women teacher leaders becoming principals. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 77(5), 209-212. doi:10.3200/TCHS.77.5.209-212
  • Appelbaum, H. S., Bregman, M. & Moroz, P. (1998). Fear as a strategy: Effects and impact within the organization. Journal of European Industrial Training, 22(3), 113-127. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090599810207944
  • Argon, T. (2015). Views of teachers regarding whether school administrators take teachers' state of emotions into consideration or not. Abant İzzet Baysal University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 15(1), 377-404.
  • Ashkanasy, N.M., & Nicholson, G.J. (2003). Climate of fear in organizational settings: Construct definition, measurement, and a test of theory. Australian Journal of Psychology, 55, 24-29. https://doi.org/10.1080/00049530412331312834
  • Chaiuk, T. A., & Dunaievska, O.V. (2020). Fear culture in media: An examination on coronavirus discourse. Journal of History Culture and Art Research, 9(2), 184-194. https://doi.org/10.7596/taksad.v9i2.2636
  • Chen, J. (2016). Understanding teacher emotions: The development of a teacher emotion inventory. Teaching and Teacher Education, 55, 68-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2016.01.001
  • Creswell, J.W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (3rd Edition). Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
  • Creswell, J. W., Clark, V. L. P., Gutmann, M. L., & Hanson, W. E. (2003). Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research. A. Tashakkori & C. Teddlie (Ed.). Advanced mixed methods research designs (pp. 223-227). Thousand Oaks, London: Sage Publications.
  • Cüceloğlu, D. (2001). İçimizdeki biz. Remzi Kitabevi.
  • Cüceloğlu, D. (2018). Öğretmenim bir bakar mısın? Final Kültür Sanat Yayınları.
  • Çelik, K., & Kahraman, Ü. (2019). Culture of fear in schools scale: Validity and reliability study. Inonu University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 20(2), 319-333. https://doi.org/10.17679/inuefd.537884
  • Dilekçi, Ü., & Nartgün, Ş.S. (2019). Adaptation of teachers' instructional emotions scale to Turkish culture and revision and descriptive analysis of the scale. Educational Administration: Theory and Practice, 25(1), 51-118. doi:10.14527/kuey.2019.002
  • Durrah, T. M. (2009). A study of gender based school leadership and its perceived influence on the school climate. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Union University.
  • Furedi, F. (2007). The only thing we have to fear is the 'culture of fear' itself. American Journal of Sociology, 32, 231-234.
  • Furedi, F. (2014). Korku kültürü: Risk almamanın riskleri (B. Yıldırım, trans.). Ayrıntı Yayınları.
  • Green, S.B., & Salkind, N.J. (2005). Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: Analyzing and understanding data (4.edt.). Pearson.
  • Hampton, T. J. (2013). Know fear: how leaders respond and relate to their fears. Education Doctoral Dissertations in Organization Development). University of St.Thomas. Minnesota. https://doi.org/10.1037/00223514.67.2.206
  • Hoffman, J., Sabo, D., Bliss, J., & Hoy, W. K. (1994). Building a culture of trust. Journal of School Leadership, 4, 484-50. https://doi.org/10.1177/105268469400400503
  • Hoy, W. K., & Miskel, C. G. (2010). Management theory, research and practice. Nobel Printing Distribution.
  • Kahraman, Ü. (2019). Effect of school administrators' management style, organizational DNA and organizational change on fear culture in schools (Unpublished doctorate thesis). Pamukkale University, Denizli.
  • Kawana, I. (2004). Inspectors of educations perceptions of female principalship in the Rundu region of Namibia. (Unpublished master's thesis). Rhodes University, Grahamstown.
  • Kline, R.B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). Guilford Press.
  • Lerner, J. S., & Keltner, D. (2001). Fear, anger, and risk. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(1), 146-159. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.81.1.146 Mannoni, P. (1992). Korku (I.Gürbüz, trans.). Yeni Yüzyıl Kitaplığı.
  • Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H. & Schoorman, F. D. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. The Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709-734. https://doi.org/10.2307/258792
  • Patton, M.Q. (2005). Qualitative research. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.
  • Roseman, I. J., Wiest, C., & Swartz, T. S. (1994). Phenomenology, behaviors, and goals differentiate discrete emotions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(2), 206-221. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.67.2.206
  • Sarıer, Y., & Uysal, Ş. (2020). The relationship between the leadership of school administrators and the negative attitudes and behaviors of teachers in Turkey: A meta-analysis study. Anadolu Journal of Educational Sciences International, 10(2), 1041-1065. https://doi.org/10.18039/ajesi.733950
  • Schein, E. (1985). Organizational culture and leadership: A dynamic view. Jossey-Bass.
  • Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H. & Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of PsychologicalResearch Online, 8(2), 23-74.
  • Sincer, S., & Atanur Baskan, G. (2017). Analyzing the relationship between culture of fear and burnout according to the perceptions of academics. Journal of Higher Education & Science, 7(3), 462-472. doi:10.5961/jhes.2017.223
  • Şişman, M., Güleş, H., & Dönmez, A. (2010). Qualifications framework for a democratic school culture. Uşak University Journal of Social Sciences,3(1), 167-182.
  • Taber, K.S. (2018). The use of cronbach's alpha when developing and reporting research instruments in science education. Res Sci Educ, 48, 1273-1296. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11165-016-9602-2
  • Thompkins, D.G. (2000). School violence: Gangs and a culture of fear. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 567(1), 54-71.
  • Thongsukmag, J. (2003). Fear in the workplace: The relationships among sex, self efficacy, and coping strategies. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia.
  • Tschannen-Moran, M. (2001). Collaboration and the need for trust. Journal of Educational Administration, 39, 308-331. doi:10.1108/EUM0000000005493
  • Tudor, A. (2003). A (macro) sociology of fear?. Sociological Review, 51(2), 238-254. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-954X.00417
  • Williams, K., & Dunne-Bryant, A. (2006). Divorce and adult psychological well-being: Clarifying the role of gender and child age. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68(5), 1178-1196. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2006.00322.x
  • Yılmaz, F. & Göçen, S. (2015). Students' views on culture of fear in education system. Journal of Computer and Education Research, 3(6), 117-128.

Why Do Teachers Fear? Investigating Teachers' Perceptions of the Culture of Fear through Mixed Methods Research

Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, 204 - 218, 15.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.1025710

Abstract

This research aims to reveal the source of fears by examining various variables of teachers' perceptions of fear culture. The study employed an explanatory approach of mixed methods research. Quantitative data were obtained through the "Culture of Fear in Schools Scale," while qualitative data were gathered through a semi-structured interview form. Quantitative data were collected from 325 teachers working in primary and secondary schools in Turkey, selected via the simple random sampling method. Qualitative data were collected from 15 teachers selected using the maximum variation sampling method. Many contradictions have emerged between the quantitative and qualitative findings in the study. While quantitative findings show that teachers experience low levels of fear originating from administrators, colleagues, and legal processes, qualitative results show that teachers experience these fears more prominently. In addition, based on the variables of gender, marital status, seniority at the current school, employment status, and professional seniority, a statistically significant difference was found between teachers' perceptions of the culture of fear. In conclusion, the research provides some evidence for the existence of a culture of fear in schools. In addition, some critical implications regarding the origin of teachers' perceived fears were discussed for future research, practitioners, and policymakers.

References

  • Adams, K. L., & Hambright, W. G. (2004). Encouraged or discouraged? Women teacher leaders becoming principals. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 77(5), 209-212. doi:10.3200/TCHS.77.5.209-212
  • Appelbaum, H. S., Bregman, M. & Moroz, P. (1998). Fear as a strategy: Effects and impact within the organization. Journal of European Industrial Training, 22(3), 113-127. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090599810207944
  • Argon, T. (2015). Views of teachers regarding whether school administrators take teachers' state of emotions into consideration or not. Abant İzzet Baysal University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 15(1), 377-404.
  • Ashkanasy, N.M., & Nicholson, G.J. (2003). Climate of fear in organizational settings: Construct definition, measurement, and a test of theory. Australian Journal of Psychology, 55, 24-29. https://doi.org/10.1080/00049530412331312834
  • Chaiuk, T. A., & Dunaievska, O.V. (2020). Fear culture in media: An examination on coronavirus discourse. Journal of History Culture and Art Research, 9(2), 184-194. https://doi.org/10.7596/taksad.v9i2.2636
  • Chen, J. (2016). Understanding teacher emotions: The development of a teacher emotion inventory. Teaching and Teacher Education, 55, 68-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2016.01.001
  • Creswell, J.W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (3rd Edition). Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
  • Creswell, J. W., Clark, V. L. P., Gutmann, M. L., & Hanson, W. E. (2003). Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research. A. Tashakkori & C. Teddlie (Ed.). Advanced mixed methods research designs (pp. 223-227). Thousand Oaks, London: Sage Publications.
  • Cüceloğlu, D. (2001). İçimizdeki biz. Remzi Kitabevi.
  • Cüceloğlu, D. (2018). Öğretmenim bir bakar mısın? Final Kültür Sanat Yayınları.
  • Çelik, K., & Kahraman, Ü. (2019). Culture of fear in schools scale: Validity and reliability study. Inonu University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 20(2), 319-333. https://doi.org/10.17679/inuefd.537884
  • Dilekçi, Ü., & Nartgün, Ş.S. (2019). Adaptation of teachers' instructional emotions scale to Turkish culture and revision and descriptive analysis of the scale. Educational Administration: Theory and Practice, 25(1), 51-118. doi:10.14527/kuey.2019.002
  • Durrah, T. M. (2009). A study of gender based school leadership and its perceived influence on the school climate. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Union University.
  • Furedi, F. (2007). The only thing we have to fear is the 'culture of fear' itself. American Journal of Sociology, 32, 231-234.
  • Furedi, F. (2014). Korku kültürü: Risk almamanın riskleri (B. Yıldırım, trans.). Ayrıntı Yayınları.
  • Green, S.B., & Salkind, N.J. (2005). Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: Analyzing and understanding data (4.edt.). Pearson.
  • Hampton, T. J. (2013). Know fear: how leaders respond and relate to their fears. Education Doctoral Dissertations in Organization Development). University of St.Thomas. Minnesota. https://doi.org/10.1037/00223514.67.2.206
  • Hoffman, J., Sabo, D., Bliss, J., & Hoy, W. K. (1994). Building a culture of trust. Journal of School Leadership, 4, 484-50. https://doi.org/10.1177/105268469400400503
  • Hoy, W. K., & Miskel, C. G. (2010). Management theory, research and practice. Nobel Printing Distribution.
  • Kahraman, Ü. (2019). Effect of school administrators' management style, organizational DNA and organizational change on fear culture in schools (Unpublished doctorate thesis). Pamukkale University, Denizli.
  • Kawana, I. (2004). Inspectors of educations perceptions of female principalship in the Rundu region of Namibia. (Unpublished master's thesis). Rhodes University, Grahamstown.
  • Kline, R.B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). Guilford Press.
  • Lerner, J. S., & Keltner, D. (2001). Fear, anger, and risk. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(1), 146-159. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.81.1.146 Mannoni, P. (1992). Korku (I.Gürbüz, trans.). Yeni Yüzyıl Kitaplığı.
  • Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H. & Schoorman, F. D. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. The Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709-734. https://doi.org/10.2307/258792
  • Patton, M.Q. (2005). Qualitative research. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.
  • Roseman, I. J., Wiest, C., & Swartz, T. S. (1994). Phenomenology, behaviors, and goals differentiate discrete emotions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(2), 206-221. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.67.2.206
  • Sarıer, Y., & Uysal, Ş. (2020). The relationship between the leadership of school administrators and the negative attitudes and behaviors of teachers in Turkey: A meta-analysis study. Anadolu Journal of Educational Sciences International, 10(2), 1041-1065. https://doi.org/10.18039/ajesi.733950
  • Schein, E. (1985). Organizational culture and leadership: A dynamic view. Jossey-Bass.
  • Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H. & Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of PsychologicalResearch Online, 8(2), 23-74.
  • Sincer, S., & Atanur Baskan, G. (2017). Analyzing the relationship between culture of fear and burnout according to the perceptions of academics. Journal of Higher Education & Science, 7(3), 462-472. doi:10.5961/jhes.2017.223
  • Şişman, M., Güleş, H., & Dönmez, A. (2010). Qualifications framework for a democratic school culture. Uşak University Journal of Social Sciences,3(1), 167-182.
  • Taber, K.S. (2018). The use of cronbach's alpha when developing and reporting research instruments in science education. Res Sci Educ, 48, 1273-1296. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11165-016-9602-2
  • Thompkins, D.G. (2000). School violence: Gangs and a culture of fear. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 567(1), 54-71.
  • Thongsukmag, J. (2003). Fear in the workplace: The relationships among sex, self efficacy, and coping strategies. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia.
  • Tschannen-Moran, M. (2001). Collaboration and the need for trust. Journal of Educational Administration, 39, 308-331. doi:10.1108/EUM0000000005493
  • Tudor, A. (2003). A (macro) sociology of fear?. Sociological Review, 51(2), 238-254. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-954X.00417
  • Williams, K., & Dunne-Bryant, A. (2006). Divorce and adult psychological well-being: Clarifying the role of gender and child age. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68(5), 1178-1196. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2006.00322.x
  • Yılmaz, F. & Göçen, S. (2015). Students' views on culture of fear in education system. Journal of Computer and Education Research, 3(6), 117-128.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Education and Educational Research
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Bünyamin AĞALDAY> (Primary Author)
MARDIN ARTUKLU UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-0128-5055
Türkiye


Mehmet YİĞİT>
Kızıltepe TOKI Primary School
0000-0003-3776-4437
Türkiye

Publication Date March 15, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1

Cite

APA Ağalday, B. & Yiğit, M. (2022). Why Do Teachers Fear? Investigating Teachers' Perceptions of the Culture of Fear through Mixed Methods Research . International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research , 9 (1) , 204-218 . DOI: 10.33200/ijcer.1025710

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IJCER (International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research) ISSN: 2148-3868