The Effect of School Burnout on Academic Achievement and Well-Being in High School Students: A Holistic Model Proposal
Abstract views: 1310 / PDF downloads: 231
Keywords:Structural equation modeling, High school students, school burnout, academic achievement, well-being
This study aimed to contribute to a holistic analysis of the effect of school burnout on academic achievement and well-being in high school students. For this purpose, a structural equation model made up of variables, including self-regulation, student-teacher relationships, peer relationships, family involvement to school, school burnout, academic achievement, and well-being, was tested. The sample of study consisted of 866 high school students from seven different types of high schools. The data of study were collected using a set of eight scales consisting of the Personal Information Form, Self-Regulation Scale, the Friendship Qualities Scale, the Self-Determination Theory-Based Student-Teacher Relationship Questionnaire-High School Form, the Perceived Parental and Teacher Academic Involvement Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey, the Academic Achievement (GPA), and the EPOCH Measure of Well-Being (EPOCH). Total six hypotheses were tested with the hypothetical model established within the scope of the study. As a result of the analysis, it was found that all of the hypotheses regarding the proposed hypothetical model were accepted, and the model was confirmed. The findings of the study revealed that each of the variables, namely, self-regulation, student-teacher relationships, peer relationships, and family involvement to school, had a direct and negative predictor effect on school burnout.
Alarcon, G. M., Edwards, J. M., & Menke, L. E. (2011). Student burnout and engagement: A test of the conservation of resources theory. The Journal of Psychology, 145(3), 211-227.
Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411-423.
Atik, S., & Özer, N. (2020). Lise öğrencilerinin öğretmene güvenleri ile akademik başarıları arasındaki ilişkide okula karşı tutum, okula yabancılaşma ve okul tükenmişliğinin doğrudan ve dolaylı rolü [The direct and indirect role of school attitude, alienation to school and school burnout in the relation between the trust in teacher and academic achievements of students]. Eğitim ve Bilim, 45(202), 441-458.
Ay, İ. (2014). Üniversite öğrencilerinin psikolojik yardım gereksinimlerine ilişkin öznel faktörlerin incelenmesi [Investigating the subjective factors related to the need for psychological help of the college students]. (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/.
Aypay, A. (2012). Ortaöğretim öğrencileri için Okul Tükenmişliği Ölçeği (OOTÖ) [School Burnout Scale for secondary school students (SBSS)]. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Bilimleri, 12(2), 773-787.
Aypay, A. (2017). A positive model for reducing and preventing school burnout in high school students. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 17(4), 1345-1359.
Aypay, A., & Eryılmaz, A. (2011). Relationships of high school sdutent’s subjective well-being and school burnout. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 3(1), 181-199.
Balkıs, M., Duru, E., Buluş, M., & Duru, S. (2011). Tükenmişliğin öğretmen adayları arasındaki yaygınlığı, demografik değişkenler ve akademik başarı ile ilişkisi [The prevalence of burnout among prospective teachers, it’s relation with demographic variables and academic achievement]. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 29(29), 151-165.
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. NY: General Learning.
Bask, M., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2013). Burned out to drop out: Exploring the relationship between school burnout and school dropout. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28(2), 511-528.
Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2012). Self regulation and the executive function of the self. In M. R. Leary & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self and identity (pp. 180-197). New York: The Guilford.
Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2007). Self‐regulation, ego depletion, and motivation. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 1(1), 115-128.
Beltran, C. A., Moreno, M. P., Estrada, J. S. Lopez, T. M., & Rodriguez, A. (2009). Social support, burnout syndrome and occupational exhaustion among traffic police agents. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 12(2), 585-592.
Brake, H., Eijkman, M., Hoogstraten, J., & Gorter, R. (2005). Dentists' self assessment of burnout: An internet feedback tool. International Dental Journal, 55(3), 119-126.
Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. A. (2006). The bioecological model of human development. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Theoretical models of human development (pp. 793-828). Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons.
Brown, J. M., Miller, W. R., & Lawendowski, L. A. (1999). The self-regulation questionnaire. In L. VandeCreek & T. L. Jackson (Eds.), Innovations in clinical practice: A source book (pp. 281-289). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource.
Bukowski, W. M., Hoza, B., & Boivin, M. (1994). Measuring friendship quality during pre and early adolescence: The development and psychometric properties of the Friendship Qualities Scale. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 11(3), 471-484.
Cadime, I., Pinto, A. M., Lima, S., Rego, S., Pereira, J., & Ribeiro, I. (2016). Well-being and academic achievement in secondary school pupils: The unique effects of burnout and engagement. Journal of Adolescence, 53, 169-179.
Carey, K. B., Neal, D. J., & Collins, S. E. (2004). A psychometric analysis of the self-regulation questionnaire. Addictive Behaviors, 29(2), 253-260.
Castro, M., Expósito-Casas, E., López-Martín, E., Lizasoain, L., Navarro-Asencio, E., & Gaviria, J. L. (2015). Parental involvement on student academic achievement: A meta analysis. Educational Research Review, 14, 33-46.
Cho, E., & Jeon, S. (2019). The role of empathy and psychological need satisfaction in pharmacy students’ burnout and well-being. BMC Medical Education, 19(1), 1-12.
Cırcır, O. (2018) Ergenlerde, okul tükenmişlik düzeylerinin aleksitimi ve okul iklimi açısından yordanması [Prediction of school burnout levels in adolescents in terms of alexithymia and school climate]. (Master thesis). Retrieved from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. London: Routledge.
Cronk, B. C. (2008). How to use SPSS: A step-by-step guide to analysis and interpretation. California: Pyrczak.
Çam, Z., & Öğülmüş, S. (2021). Testing of a model on the school burnout among high school students and exploring the model’s prediction level of grade retention. International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, 13(2), 950-985.
Çelik, A., & Pesen, A. (2020). Ortaokul öğrencilerinin okul tükenmişliği, öğrenme sürecinde yardım istemeleri ve akademik başarıları arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi [Examining the relationship between school burnout, help-seeking during learning process and academic achievement of secondary school students]. Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 22(2), 351-362.
Demirci, İ., & Ekşi, F. (2015). Ergenler için beş boyutlu iyi oluş modeli: EPOCH Ölçeği’nin Türkçe Formu’nun geçerliği ve güvenirliği [Five-dimensional well-being model for adolescents: validity and reliability of the Turkish Form of the EPOCH Scale]. Gençlik Araştırmaları Dergisi, 3(3), 9-30.
Durmuş, E., Aypay, A., & Aybek, E. C. (2017). Okul tükenmişliğini önlemede ebeveyn izlemesi ve olumlu okul iklimi [Parental monitoring and positive school climate in preventing school burnout]. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Yönetimi Dergisi, 23(3), 355-386.
Duru, E., Duru, B., & Balkıs, M. (2014). Analysis of relationships among burnout, academic achievement, and self-regulation. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 14(4), 1274-1284. Dündar, Ş. (2014). Algılanan anne-baba ve öğretmen akademik katılım ölçeğinin Türkçeye uyarlanması [The adaptation of the perceived parental and teacher academic involvement scale into Turkish]. Eğitim Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi, 4(1), 369-382.
Eccles, J. S. (2004). Schools, academic motivation, and stage-environment fit. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of Adolescent Psychology (pp. 125-155). New Jersey: Wiley.
Edelwich, J., & Brodsky, A. (1980). Burn-out: Stages of disillusionment in the helping professions. New York: Human Sciences.
Erkan-Atik, Z., Çoban, A. E., Çok, F., Doğan, T., & Karaman, N. G. (2014). Akran İlişkileri Ölçeği’nin Türkçeye uyarlanması: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması [The Turkish adaptation of the Friendship Qualities Scale: A validity and reliability study] . Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Bilimleri, 14(2), 433-446.
Fiorilli, C., De Stasio, S., Di Chiacchio, C., Pepe, A. & Salmela-Aro, K. (2017). School burnout, depressive symptoms and engagement: Their combined effect on student achievement. International Journal of Educational Research, 84(2017), 1-12.
Flouri, E., & Buchanan, A. (2003). The role of father involvement and mother involvement in adolescents' psychological well‐being. British Journal of Social Work, 33(3), 399-406.
Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E. & Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education. New York: McGraw Hill.
Gonzalez-DeHass, A. R., Willems, P. P., & Holbein, M. F. D. (2005). Examining the relationship between parental involvement and student motivation. Educational Psychology Review, 17(2), 99-123.
Gündüz, B. (2005). İlköğretim öğretmenlerinde tükenmişlik [Burnout in elementary school teachers]. Mersin Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 1(1), 152-166.
Halbesleben, J. R. (2006). Sources of social support and burnout: A meta-analytic test of the conservation of resources model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(5), 1134-1145.
Hobfoll, S. E., & Shirom, A. (2001). Conservation of resources theory: Applications to stress and management in the workplace. In R. T. Golembiewski (Ed.), Handbook of organizational behavior (pp. 57-80). New York: Marcel Dekker.
Jacobs, S. R., & Dodd, D. (2003). Student burnout as a function of personality, social support, and workload. Journal of College Student Development, 44(3), 291-303.
Jeynes, W. H. (2003). A meta-analysis: The effects of parental involvement on minority children’s academic achievement. Education and Urban Society, 35(2), 202-218.
Jeynes, W. H. (2005). A meta-analysis of the relation of parental involvement to urban elementary school student academic achievement. Urban Education, 40(3), 237-269.
Jeynes, W. H. (2007). The relationship between parental involvement and urban secondary school student academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Urban Education, 42(1), 82- 110.
Kapıkıran, Ş., Yaşar, M., & Kapıkıran, N. A. (2016). Benlik saygısı ve okul tükenmişliği arasındaki ilişkide öz düzenlemenin doğrudan ve dolaylı rolü [The direct and indirect role of self-regulation in the relationship between self-esteem and school burnout]. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 6(45). 51-64.
Kara, S. (2014). Lise öğrencilerinde okul tükenmişliği ile psikolojik iyi olma arasındaki ilişkinin çeşitli değişkenler açısından incelenmesi [Investigation of the relationship between school burnout and psychological well-being in high school students in terms of various variables]. (Master thesis). Retrieved from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/.
Kern, M. L., Benson, L., Steinberg, E. A., & Steinberg, L. (2016). The EPOCH measure of adolescent well-being. Psychological Assessment, 28(5), 586-597.
Kim, J. H., Yoon, Y. J., & Jung, I. K. (2016). The mediating effects of stress coping strategy on the relationship between academic burnout and school adjustment in Korean adolescents. Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association, 28(1), 71-85.
Kim, S. W., & Hill, N. E. (2015). Including fathers in the picture: A meta-analysis of parental involvement and students’ academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107(4), 919-934.
Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford.
Kutsal, D., & Bilge, F. (2012). Lise öğrencilerinin tükenmişlik ve sosyal destek düzeyleri [A study on the burnout and social support levels of high school students]. Eğitim ve Bilim, 37(164), 283-297.
Kutsal, D. (2009). Lise öğrencilerinin tükenmişliklerinin incelenmesi [Examining the burnout of high school students]. (Master thesis). Retrieved from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/.
Kuzucu, Y., & Özdemir, Y. (2013). Ergen ruh sağlığının anne ve baba katılımı açısından yordanması [Predicting adolescent mental health in terms of mother and father involvement]. Eğitim ve Bilim, 38(168), 96-112.
Külekçi Akyavuz, E. (2020). Ortaöğretim öğrencilerinin okul tükenmişliği ve okula yabancılaşma algıları arasındaki ilişkisinin incelenmesi [Analysis of the relationship between secondary education students’ school burnout and perceptions regarding alienation to school.] Kastamonu Education Journal, 28(2), 847-857.
Lee, J., Puig, A., Kim, Y. B., Shin, H., Lee, J. H., & Lee, S. M. (2010). Academic burnout profiles in Korean adolescents. Stress and Health, 26(5), 404-416.
Lindberg, E. N., & Demircan, A. (2013). Ortaöğretim okullarında aile katılımının değerlendirilmesi: Aile Katılım Ölçeği Veli ve Öğretmen Formları’nın Türkçe’ye uyarlanması [Parental participation at high school: Adaptation of Teachers’ and Parents’ Scales of Parental Participation.] Cumhuriyet Uluslararası Eğitim Dergisi, 2(3), 64-78.
Lunenburg, F. C., & Ornstein, A. C. (2013). Eğitim yönetimi [Education management] (G. Arastaman, T. Ed.). Ankara: Nobel.
Luo, Y., Wang, Z., Zhang, H., Chen, A., & Quan, S. (2016). The effect of perfectionism on school burnout among adolescence: The mediator of self-esteem and coping style. Personality and Individual Differences, 88, 202-208.
Madigan, D. J., & Curran, T. (2020). Does burnout affect academic achievement? A meta-analysis of over 100,000 students. Educational Psychology Review, 1-19.
May, R. W., Bauer, K. N., & Fincham, F. D. (2015). School burnout: Diminished academic and cognitive performance. Learning and Individual Differences, 42, 126-131.
May, R. W., Bauer, K. N., & Fincham, F. D. (2015). School burnout: Diminished academic and cognitive performance. Learning and Individual Differences, 42, 126-131.
Murdock, K. K. (2013). Texting while stressed: Implications for students burnout, sleep, and well-being. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 2(4), 207–221.
Öğülmüş, S. (2006). Okullarda şiddet ve alınabilecek önlemler [Violence in schools and measures that can be taken]. Eğitime Bakış, 2(7), 16-24.
Özhan, M., B. (2019). Lise öğrencilerinde okul tükenmişliğinin akademik başarı ve iyi oluşa etkisinin bütüncül olarak incelenmesi [Investigation of the effect of school burnout on academic achievement and well-being with a holistic approach in high school students]. (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/.
Parker, P. D., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2011). Developmental processes in school burnout: A comparision of major developmental models. Learning and Individual Differences. 21, 244-248.
Pilkauskaite-Valickiene, R., Zukauskiene, R., & Raiziene, S. (2011). The role of attachment to school and open classroom climate for discussion on adolescents’ school-related burnout. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 637-641.
Raiziene, S., Pilkauskaite-Valickiene, R., & Zukauskiene, R. (2014). School burnout and subjective well-being: evidence from cross-lagged relations in a 1-year longitudinal sample. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 3254-3258.
Raufelder, D., Kittler, F., Braun, S. R., Lätsch, A., Wilkinson, R. P., & Hoferichter, F. (2014). The interplay of perceived stress, self-determination and school engagement in adolescence. School Psychology International, 35(4), 405-420.
Reeve, J. (2012). A self-determination perspective theory on student engagement. In S.L. Christenson, A.L. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 149–172). New York: Springer.
Régner, I., Loose, F., & Dumas, F. (2009). Students’ perceptions of parental and teacher academic involvement: Consequences on achievement goals. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 24(2), 263-277.
Salmela‐Aro, K., Kiuru, N., & Nurmi, J. E. (2008). The role of educational track in adolescents' school burnout: A longitudinal study. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 78(4), 663-689
Salmela-Aro, K., Kiuru, N., Leskinen, E., & Nurmi, J. E. (2009). School Burnout Inventory (SBI) reliability and validity. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 25(1), 48-57.
Salmela-Aro, K., Kiuru, N., Pietikäinen, M., & Jokela, J. (2008). Does school matter? The role of school context in adolescents’ school-related burnout. European Psychologist, 13(1), 12-23.
Salmela-Aro, K., Savolainen, H., & Holopainen, L. (2009). Depressive symptoms and school burnout during adolescence: Evidence from two cross-lagged longitudinal studies. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(10), 1316-1327.
Salmela-Aro, K., Tynkkynen, L., & Vuori, J. (2011). Parents' work burnout and adolescents' school burnout: Are they shared?. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8(2), 215-227.
Santrock, J. W. (2012). Ergenlik [Adolescent] (D. M. Siyez, T. Ed.). Ankara: Nobel.
Schaufeli, W. B., Martinez, I. M., Pinto, A. M., Salanova, M., & Bakker, A. B. (2002a). Burnout and engagement in university students: A cross-national study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 33(5), 464-481.
Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., González-Romá, V., & Bakker, A. B. (2002b). The measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3(1), 71-92.
Seibert, G. S., Bauer, K. N., May, R. W., & Fincham, F. D. (2017). Emotion regulation and academic underperformance: The role of school burnout. Learning and Individual Differences, 60, 1-9.
Seibert, G. S., May, R. W., Fitzgerald, M. C., & Fincham, F. D. (2016). Understanding school burnout: Does self-control matter?. Learning and Individual Differences, 49, 120-127.
Seligman, M. E. (2011). Flourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. New York: Free.
Senemoğlu, N. (2009). Gelişim, öğrenme ve öğretim [Development, learning and teaching]. Ankara: Pegem.
Sezgin, F. (2013). School as a social system. In S. Özdemir (Ed.), Theory and practice in educational administration (pp. 63-100). Ankara: Pegem.
Shih, S. S. (2012). An examination of academic burnout versus work engagement among Taiwanese adolescents. The Journal of Educational Research, 105(4), 286-298.
Shih, S. S. (2015). The relationships among Taiwanese adolescents’ perceived classroom environment, academic coping, and burnout. School Psychology Quarterly, 30(2), 307-320.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson.
Tang, X., Upadyaya, K., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2021). School burnout and psychosocial problems among adolescents: grit as a resilience factor. Journal of Adolescence, 86, 77-89.
Tavşancıl, E. (2014). Tutumların ölçülmesi ve SPSS ile veri analizi [Measuring attitudes and data analysis with SPSS]. Ankara: Nobel.
TEDMEM (2014). Bir çocuğu yetiştirmek tüm toplumun görevidir. [Raising a child is the duty of the whole society]. Retrieved from https://tedmem.org/mem-notlari/gorus/bir-cocugu-yetistirmek-tum-toplumun-gorevidir.
Tuominen-Soini, H., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2014). Schoolwork engagement and burnout among Finnish high school students and young adults: Profiles, progressions, and educational outcomes. Developmental Psychology, 50(3), 649-662.
Walburg, V. (2014). Burnout among high school students: A literature review. Children and Youth Services Review, 42, 28-33.
Yang, H. J. (2004). Factors affecting student burnout and academic achievement in multiple enrollment programs in Taiwan’s technical–vocational colleges. International Journal of Educational Development, 24(3), 283-301.
Yıldız, V. A., & Kılıç, D. (2020). Investigation of school burnout and school attachment among secondary school students. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 20(3), 44- 55.
Zhang, Q., & Zhu, W. (2007). Teacher stress, burnout, and social support in Chinese secondary education. Human Communication, 10(4), 487-496.
Zorbaz, O. (2018). Lise öğrencilerinin okul terk risklerini etkileyen öğrenci ve okul düzeyindeki faktörler [Student and school level factors affecting drop out risks of high school students]. Retrieved from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.