Year 2020, Volume 7 , Issue 1, Pages 280 - 299 2020-06-15

An Examination of Academically Successful Secondary School Students’ Aspirations with Regard to Potential Human Capital Flight (Brain Drain)

Taner ATMACA [1]


The main goal of this study is to determine the extent to which academically successful students studying in secondary schools in Turkey that only accept students scoring in extremely high (94th-99th) percentile on standardized tests harbor intentions to emigrate from Turkey in the future. In addition, a secondary goal is to examine why they intend to carry out the various academic work, scientific work, cutting-edge technological research, and/or plans, patents, and discoveries related to R & D that they have already designed or plan to do in the future in different countries, i.e. why they intend to emigrate. The study was designed in accordance with qualitative research methods; three different groups were defined in order to obtain three sets of data. The first set of data was collected from 40 students from a school in Ankara that only accepts students who score in the 99th percentile or higher on the LYS-TEOG [LYS=Undergraduate Placement Exam; TEOG= Transition From Primary to Secondary Education Exam), the second set of data was obtained from a total of 98 students from a school that accepts students whose scores range from the 97th to the 99th percentile on the LYS-TEOG, and the third and final set of data was collected from a total of 56 students from a different school, one that accepts students whose scores range from the 94th to the 96th percentile on the LYS-TEOG. NVIVO 11, a qualitative data analysis computer software package, was used during the analysis of the findings; content analysis was the preferred research method. The findings of the study indicate that a large percentage of the most academically successful students in Turkey intend to emigrate as a direct result of the lack of trust in their own country, non-merit-based hiring standards & administrative decisions, the perception that science and research are not highly valued in Turkey, and concerns over the lack of support for workers and researchers alike.

Human capital flight, Brain drain, Research & development (R&D)
  • Acar, E. (2017). An outline of skilled emigration from Turkey to OECD countries: A panel data analysis. International Journal of Economics and Innovation, 3(1), 1-16.
  • Adeyemi, R., Joel, A., Ebenezer, J. & Attah, E. (2018). The effect of brain drain on the economic development of developing countries: Evidence from selected African countries. Journal of Health and Social Issues (JOHESI), 7(2), 66-76.
  • Akman, V. (2014). Factors influencing international student migration: A survey and evaluation of Turkey’s case. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 5(1): 390-415.
  • Aktaş, M. (2014). Göç olgusu ekonomik kalkınmada itici güç olabilir mi? Aksaray Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 7(1), 37-48.
  • Alarcon, R. (1999). Recruitment process among foreign-born engineers and scientists in silicon valley. American Behavioral Scientist, 42(9), 1381-1397.
  • Aydemir, A. (2011). Küresel rekabet edilebilirlikte beyin göçü ve beyin kazanımı konferansı sonuç kitabı (s. 24-42). Boğaziçi Üniversitesi İnovasyon ve Rekabet Odaklı Kalkınma Çalışmaları Uygulama ve Araştırma Merkezi.
  • Aysıt, T. & Güngör, N.D. (2003), Brain drain from Turkey: Survey evidence of student non-return. Special Issue on Career Development in the Middle East, Career Development International, 8(2), 52–69.
  • Bakırtaş, T. & Kandemir, O. (2010). Gelişmekte olan ülkeler ve beyin göçü: Türkiye örneği. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi, 18(3), 961-974.
  • Bakırtaş, T. (2012). Küresel gelişme modelinde uluslararası göç olgusu ve yansımaları. Alternatif Politika, 4(2), 232-261.
  • Bauder, H. (2003). Brain abuse or the devaluation of immigrant labour in Canada. Antipode, 35(4), 699-717. doi:10.1046/j.1467-8330.2003.00346.x.
  • Beine, M., Docquier, F. & Rapoport, H. (2008). Brain drain and human capital formation in developing countries: Winners and losers. The Economic Journal, 118, 631-652.
  • Böhm, A., Davis, T., Meares, D. & Pearce, D. (2002). Global student mobility 2025: Forecasts of the global demand for international higher education. Australia: IDP Education.
  • Capuano, S. & Marfouk, A. (2013). African brain drain and its impact on source countries: What do we know and what do we need to know? Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 15(4), 297-314.
  • Chimboza, A. (2012). From brain drain to brain gain: Addressing human capital needs for post crisis Zimbabwe’s capacity building. Master Thesis, University of Pennsylvania, USA.
  • Çoban, E. (2019). Brain drain in Turkey: Push and pull effects. Master Thesis, (YÖK Thesis Nu: 581330), Yıldız Teknik University, İstanbul.
  • Dalgıç, T. (1977). Beyin göçü sorununa Türkiye açısından kısa bir bakış. Eğitim ve Bilim, 5-6.
  • Demographic scenarios for the EU - migration, population and education (W. Lutz, Ed.) (2019). Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
  • Docquier, F. (2014). The brain drain from developing countries. Germany: IZA.
  • Docquier, F. & Rapoport, H. (2011). Globalization, brain drain and development. Discussion Paper No: 5590, IZA, Bonn.
  • Dodani, S. & LaPorte, R. (2005). Brain drain from developing countries: How can brain drain be converted into wisdom gain? Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 98, 487-491.
  • Elveren, A.Y. & Toksöz, G. (2018). Türkiye’de beyin göçü yazını ve bir alan araştırması, Gürhan Fişek’in İzinde Ortak Emek ve Ortak Eylem (Emirali Karadoğan, Ed.), (s. 191-214) içinde. Ankara: Siyasal Kitabevi.
  • Erdoğan, M. (2015). Avrupa’da Türkiye kökenli göçmenler ve ‘Euro-Turks-barometre’ araştırmaları. Göç Araştırmaları Dergisi, 1(1), 108-148.
  • Erel, U. (2010). Migrating cultural capital: Bourdieu in migration studies. Sociology, 44(4), 642-660. doi: 10.1177/0038038510369363.
  • Ermağan, İ. (2018). Türkiye'nin beyin göçü meselesi. Uluslararası Avrasya Göç Sempozyumu Tam Metin Bildiri Kitabı (s. 14-33). İstanbul: İstanbul Medeniyet Üniversitesi Medeniyet Araştırmaları Merkezi.
  • Esen, E. (2014). Going and coming: Why U.S.-educated Turkish PhD holders stay in the U.S. or return to Turkey? Doctoral Dissertation, Kansas University, USA.
  • Gibson, J. & McKenzie, D. (2011). Eight questions about brain drain. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 25(3), 107-128. doi: 10.1257/jep.25.3.107.
  • Gökbayrak, Ş. (2008). Uluslararası göç ve kalkınma tartışmaları: Beyin göçü üzerine bir inceleme. Ankara Üniversitesi SBF Dergisi, 63(3), 65-82.
  • Günay, E., Atılgan, D. & Serin, E. (2017). Dünya’da ve Türkiye’de göç yönetimi. Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 7(2), 37-60.
  • Güngör, N. (2003). Brain drain from Turkey: An empirical investigation of the determinants of skilled migration and student non–return. Doctoral Dissertation (YÖK Thesis Nu: 147603), Middle East Technical University, Ankara.
  • İçduygu, A., Erder, S. & Gençkaya, F. (2014). Türkiye’nin uluslararası göç politikaları, 1923-2023: Ulus-devlet oluşumundan ulus-ötesi dönüşümlere. İstanbul: Koç Üniversitesi.
  • Johnson, N. (2009). Analysis and assessment of the “Brain drain” phenomenon and its effects on Caribbean countries. Florida Atlantic Comparative Studies Journal, 1-16.
  • Kaçar, G. (2016). Türkiye'de beyin göçü ve tersine beyin göçü olgularının değerlendirilmesi. Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi (YÖK Tez No: 435984), Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi, Eskişehir.
  • Kaya, M. (2009). Beyin göçü: Entelektüel sermaye erozyonu: Bilgi çağının gönüllü göçerleri. Eğitime Bakış, 5(13), 14-29.
  • Kelly, P. & Lusis, T. (2006). Migration and the transnational habitus: Evidence from Canada and the Philippines. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 38, 831-847. doi: 10.1068/a37214.
  • Koçak, Y. & Terzi, E. (2012). Türkiye’de göç olgusu, göç edenlerin kentlere olan etkileri ve çözüm önerileri. Kafkas Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 3(3), 3-19.
  • Körner, H. (1998). The "brain drain" from developing countries: An enduring problems. Intereconomics, 26-29.
  • Köser-Akçapar, Ş. (2006). Do brains really going down the Drain? Highly skilled Turkish migrants in the USA and the «brain drain» debate in Turkey. Revue Européenne Des Migrations Internationales, 22(3), 79-107.
  • Krieger, H. & Maitre, B. (2006). Migration trends in an enlarging European union. Turkish Studies, 7(1), 45-66. doi: 10.1080/14683840500520584.
  • Levent, F. & Karaevli, Ö. (2013). Uluslararası öğrencilerin eğitimine yönelik politikalar ve Türkiye için öneriler. Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi / Journal of Educational Sciences, 38, 97-117. doi: 10.15285/EBD.2013385569.
  • Losing our minds: Brain drain across the United States. (2019). Washington: Social Capital Project.
  • Merriam, S. B. (2013). Nitel araştırma yöntemleri (Selahattin Turan, çev. ed.). Ankara: Nobel Yayınları.
  • Mlambo, V. & Adetiba, T. (2019). Brain drain and South Africa's socio-economic development: The waves and its effects. Journal of Public Affairs, 19(4), 1-9. doi:10.1002/pa.1942.
  • Özden, Ç. (2006). Educated migrants: Is there brain waste? (Çağlar Özden & Maurice Schiff; Ed.), International Migration, Remittances & The Brain Drain (s. 227-244) içinde. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Öztürk, M. (2001). So far from home: Turkish student motivation and access to overseas higher education in the United States. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
  • Pazarcık, S. (2010). Beyin göçü olgusu ve Amerika Birleşik Devletleri üniversitelerinde çalışan Türk sosyal bilimciler üzerine bir araştırma. Yüksek Lisans Tezi (YÖK Tez No: 298060 ), Çanakkale On Sekiz Mart Üniversitesi, Çanakkale.
  • Rajan, S. (2012). India migration report 2012: Global financial crisis, migration, and remittances. London: Routledge.
  • Sager, A. (2014). Reframing the brain drain. Critical Review of International, 17(5), 560-579. doi: 10.1080/13698230.2014.919061.
  • Sağbaş, S. (2009). Beyin göçünün ekonomik ve sosyal etkileri: Türkiye örneği. Yüksek Lisans Tezi (YÖK Tez No: 254231 ), Marmara Üniversitesi, İstanbul.
  • Sağırlı, M. (2006). Eğitim ve insan kaynağı yönünden Türk beyin göçü: Geri dönen Türk akademisyenler üzerine alan araştırması. Doktora Tezi (YÖK Tez No: 217262), İstanbul Üniversitesi, İstanbul.
  • Saravia, N. & Miranda, J. (2004). Plumbing the brain drain. Bulletin of the World Organization, 82(8), 608-615.
  • Schiff, M. (2006). Brain gain: Claims about size and impact on welfare and growth are greatly exaggerated? (Çağlar Özden & Maurice Schiff; Ed.), International Migration, Remittances & The Brain Drain (s. 201-226) içinde. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Sönmez-Çalış, A. (2019). Türkiye’ye tersine beyin göçü: Nitel bir araştırma. Doktora Tezi (Yök Tez No: 583302), Sakarya Üniversitesi, Sakarya.
  • Şimşek, B. & Bakır, S. (2016). Uluslararası öğrenci hareketliliği ve Atatürk Üniversitesi’nin uluslararasılaşma süreci. Atatürk Üniversitesi Türkiyat Araştırmaları Enstitüsü Dergisi (TAED), 55, 509-542.
  • Tansel, A. & Güngör, N. (2003). Brain drain from Turkey: Survey evidence of student non-return. Career Development International, 8(2), 52-69.
  • Tansel, A. & Güngör, N. D. (2009). Türkiye'den beyin göçü: Bir anket çalışması üzerine düşünceler. Eğitime Bakış, 13, 30-34.
  • Tessema, M. (2009). Causes, challenges and prospects of brain drain: The case of Eritrea. International Migration, 48(3), 131-157. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2009.00585.x.
  • Yalçınkaya, M. & Dülger, S. (2017). Küreselleşmenin beyin göçü üzerindeki etkisi: Türkiye. Journal of Social and Humanities Sciences Research, 4(14), 1646-1654.
  • Yearbook of immigration statistics. (2013). Washington: US Department of Homeland Security.
  • Yıldırım, A. & Şimşek, H. (2013). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri. Ankara: Seçkin Yayınları.
  • Yin, R.K. (2017). Durum çalışması araştırması uygulamaları (İlhan Günbayı, çev.). Ankara: Nobel Yayınları
  • Wolburg, M. (2000). On brain drain, brain gain and brain exchange within Europe. Doctoral Dissertation, HWWA-Hamburg.
  • www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org/#/11212111213
  • www.tuik.gov.tr
Primary Language en
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0001-9157-3100
Author: Taner ATMACA (Primary Author)
Institution: DÜZCE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date : June 15, 2020

Bibtex @research article { ijcer708765, journal = {International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research}, issn = {}, eissn = {2148-3868}, address = {}, publisher = {Mustafa AYDIN}, year = {2020}, volume = {7}, pages = {280 - 299}, doi = {10.33200/ijcer.708765}, title = {An Examination of Academically Successful Secondary School Students’ Aspirations with Regard to Potential Human Capital Flight (Brain Drain)}, key = {cite}, author = {Atmaca, Taner} }
APA Atmaca, T . (2020). An Examination of Academically Successful Secondary School Students’ Aspirations with Regard to Potential Human Capital Flight (Brain Drain) . International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research , 7 (1) , 280-299 . DOI: 10.33200/ijcer.708765
MLA Atmaca, T . "An Examination of Academically Successful Secondary School Students’ Aspirations with Regard to Potential Human Capital Flight (Brain Drain)" . International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research 7 (2020 ): 280-299 <http://ijcer.net/en/pub/issue/54696/708765>
Chicago Atmaca, T . "An Examination of Academically Successful Secondary School Students’ Aspirations with Regard to Potential Human Capital Flight (Brain Drain)". International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research 7 (2020 ): 280-299
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - An Examination of Academically Successful Secondary School Students’ Aspirations with Regard to Potential Human Capital Flight (Brain Drain) AU - Taner Atmaca Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.33200/ijcer.708765 DO - 10.33200/ijcer.708765 T2 - International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 280 EP - 299 VL - 7 IS - 1 SN - -2148-3868 M3 - doi: 10.33200/ijcer.708765 UR - https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.708765 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research An Examination of Academically Successful Secondary School Students’ Aspirations with Regard to Potential Human Capital Flight (Brain Drain) %A Taner Atmaca %T An Examination of Academically Successful Secondary School Students’ Aspirations with Regard to Potential Human Capital Flight (Brain Drain) %D 2020 %J International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research %P -2148-3868 %V 7 %N 1 %R doi: 10.33200/ijcer.708765 %U 10.33200/ijcer.708765
ISNAD Atmaca, Taner . "An Examination of Academically Successful Secondary School Students’ Aspirations with Regard to Potential Human Capital Flight (Brain Drain)". International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research 7 / 1 (June 2020): 280-299 . https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.708765
AMA Atmaca T . An Examination of Academically Successful Secondary School Students’ Aspirations with Regard to Potential Human Capital Flight (Brain Drain). International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research. 2020; 7(1): 280-299.
Vancouver Atmaca T . An Examination of Academically Successful Secondary School Students’ Aspirations with Regard to Potential Human Capital Flight (Brain Drain). International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research. 2020; 7(1): 280-299.
IEEE T. Atmaca , "An Examination of Academically Successful Secondary School Students’ Aspirations with Regard to Potential Human Capital Flight (Brain Drain)", International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 280-299, Jun. 2020, doi:10.33200/ijcer.708765