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Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, 31 - 45, 30.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.799435

Abstract

References

  • Aldrich, S. T. (2017). Students’ and teachers’ perceptions of the use of mobile technology in university preparation classes. Unpublished master thesis. Massey University, Manawatu Campus, New Zealand.
  • Aggor, C. S., Tchao, E. T., Keelson, E., & Diawuo, K. (2019). Mobile phone usage among senior high and technical school students in Ghana and its impact on academic outcomes-A case study. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 903–913. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11932-4_83
  • Alfawareh, H. M., & Jusoh. S. (2014). Smartphones usage among university students: Najran University case. International Journal of Academic Research, 6(2), 321-326. https://doi.org/10.7813/2075-4124.2014/6-2/B.48
  • Anshari, M., Almunawar, M. N., Shahrill, M., Wicaksono, D. K., & Huda, M. (2017). Smartphones usage in the classrooms: Learning aid or interference?. Education and Information Technologies, 22(6), 3063-3079. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-017-9572-7
  • Ariel, Y., Elishar-Malka, V., Avidar, R., & Levy, E. C. (2017). Smartphone usage among young Israeli adults: a combined quantitative and qualitative approach. Israel Affairs, 23(5), 970-986. https://doi.org/10.1080/13537121.2017.1345422.
  • Bağcı, H. (2019). Analyzing the digital addiction of university students through diverse variables: Example of vocational school. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 6(1), 100-109. https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.546326
  • Beland, L. P., & Murphy, R. (2016). Ill Communication: Technology, distraction & student performance. Labour Economics, 41, 61-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.labeco.2016.04.004
  • Cha, S. S., & Seo, B. K. (2018). Smartphone use and smartphone addiction in middle school students in Korea: Prevalence, social networking service, and game use. Health Psychology Open, 5(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1177/2055102918755
  • Clarke, V. & Braun, V. (2013). Teaching thematic analysis: Overcoming challenges and developing strategies for effective learning, The Psychologist, 26(2). 120-123. https://thepsychologist.bps.org.uk/volume-26/edition-2/methods-teaching-thematic-analysis
  • Dempsey, M., & Brennan, A. (2018, March). The student voice: The students own views on smartphone usage and impact on their academic performance. In 12th International Technology, Education and Development Conference. International Academy of Technology, Education and Development (IATED).
  • Emanuel, R. C. (2013). The American college student cell phone survey. College Student Journal, 47(1), 75-81.
  • Fernandez, S. (2018). University student's perspectives on using cell phones in classrooms: Are they dialling up disaster?. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 17(1), 246-258.
  • Hirsh-Yechezkel, G., Mandelzweig, L., Novikov, I., Bar-Yosef, N., Livneh, I., Oren, M., ... & Sadetzki, S. (2019). Mobile phone-use habits among adolescents: predictors of intensive use. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 22(3), 212-219. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2018.0177.
  • Jesse, G. R. (2015). Smartphone and app usage among college students: Using smartphones effectively for social and educational needs. In Proceedings of the EDSIG Conference (p. n3424).
  • Joyce-Gibbons, A., Galloway, D., Mollel, A., Mgoma, S., Pima, M., & Deogratias, E. (2018). Mobile phone use in two secondary schools in Tanzania. Education and Information Technologies, 23(1), 73-92. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-017-9586-1
  • Kartal, G. (2019). What’s up with WhatsApp? A critical analysis of mobile instant messaging research in language learning. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 6(2), 352-365. https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.599138
  • Kates, A. W., Wu, H., & Coryn, C. L. (2018). The effects of mobile phone use on academic performance: A meta-analysis. Computers & Education, 127, 107-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2018.08.012
  • Kim, H. J., Lee, J. M., & Rha, J. Y. (2017). Understanding the role of user resistance on mobile learning usage among university students. Computers & Education, 113, 108-118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2017.05.015
  • Kim, I., Kim, R., Kim, H., Kim, D., Han, K., Lee, P. H., ... & Lee, U. (2019). Understanding smartphone usage in college classrooms: A long-term measurement study. Computers & Education. 141(2019), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103611
  • Koroleva, D. (2016). Always online: Mobile technology and social media usage by modern teenagers at home and at school. Educational Studies, 1, 205-224. https://doi.org/10.17323/1814-9545-2016-1-205-224
  • Kuznekoff, J. H., Munz, S., & Titsworth, S. (2015). Mobile phones in the classroom: Examining the effects of texting, Twitter, and message content on student learning. Communication Education, 64(3), 344-365. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634523.2015.1038727
  • Lee, H., Ahn, H., Choi, S., & Choi, W. (2014). The SAMS: Smartphone addiction management system and verification. Journal of Medical Systems, 38(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s10916-013-0001-1
  • Lee, H., Ahn, H., Nguyen, T. G., Choi, S. W., & Kim, D. J. (2017). Comparing the self-report and measured smartphone usage of college students: A pilot study. Psychiatry Investigation, 14(2), 198-204. https://doi.org/10.4306/pi.2017.14.2.198
  • Lellis-Santos, C., & Halpin, P. A. (2018). Workshop report: “Using social media and smartphone applications in practical lessons to enhance student learning” in Búzios, Brazil (August 6–8, 2017).
  • Lepp, A., Barkley, J. E., & Karpinski, A. C. (2015). The relationship between cell phone use and academic performance in a sample of us college students. Sage Open, 2015, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244015573169.
  • Lin, Y. H., Lin, Y. C., Lee, Y. H., Lin, P. H., Lin, S. H., Chang, L. R., ... & Kuo, T. B. (2015). Time distortion associated with smartphone addiction: Identifying smartphone addiction via a mobile application (App). Journal of Psychiatric Research, 65(2015), 139-145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires. 2015.04.003
  • Localytics (2018, December 18). US mobile app use, by time of day. Retrieved from https://www.marketingcharts.com/industries/media-and-entertainment-51390.
  • Merriam, S. B., & Tisdell, E. J. (2015). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Miles, Huberman, & Saldaña (2013). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook (3th ed.). California: SAGE Publications.
  • Nayak, J. K. (2018). Relationship among smartphone usage, addiction, academic performance and the moderating role of gender: A study of higher education students in India. Computers & Education, 123, 164-173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2018.05.007
  • Ng, S. F., Hassan, N. S. I. C., Nor, N. H. M., & Malek, N. A. A. (2017). The Relationship between smartphone use and academic performance: A case of students in A Malaysian tertiary Institution. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology, 5(4), 58-70.
  • O'Bannon, B. W., Waters, S., Lubke, J., Cady, J., & Rearden, K. (2017). Teachers and students poised to use mobile phones in the classroom. Computers in the Schools, 34(3), 125-141. https://doi.org/10.1080/07380569.2017.1347454
  • OFCOM (2018, August 2). UK Communications Market Report-2018. Retrieved from https://www.ofcom.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0022/117256/CMR-2018-narrative-report.pdf
  • Pulliam, D. (2017). Effect of student classroom cell phone usage on teachers. Unpublished master’s thesis. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.wku.edu/theses/1915
  • Richardson, M., Hussain, Z., & Griffiths, M. D. (2018). Problematic smartphone use, nature connectedness, and anxiety. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 7(1), 109-116. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.7.2018.10
  • Roberts, N., & Rees, M. (2014). Student use of mobile devices in university lectures. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 30(4), 415-426. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.589
  • Roblyer, M. D. (2016). Integrating educational technology into teaching (7th ed.). Boston: Pearson.
  • Rozgonjuk, D., Elhai, J. D., Ryan, T., & Scott, G. G. (2019). Fear of missing out is associated with disrupted activities from receiving smartphone notifications and surface learning in college students. Computers & Education, 140, 103590. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.05.016
  • Rozgonjuk, D., Kattago, M., & Täht, K. (2018). Social media use in lectures mediates the relationship between procrastination and problematic smartphone use. Computers in Human Behavior, 89, 191-198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.08.003
  • Rozgonjuk, D., Saal, K., & Täht, K. (2018). Problematic smartphone use, deep and surface approaches to learning, and social media use in lectures. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(1), 92. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010092
  • Samaha, M., & Hawi, N. S. (2016). Relationships among smartphone addiction, stress, academic performance, and satisfaction with life. Computers in Human Behavior, 57, 321-325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.12.045
  • Shrivastava, A., & Shrivastava, M. (2014). Classroom distraction due to mobile phones usage by students: College teachers’ perceptions. International Journal of Computer and Information Technology, 3(3), 638-642.
  • Soegoto, H. (2019). Smart phones usage among college students. Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 14(3), 1248-1259. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12306
  • Synnott, C. K. (2015). Smartphones in the classroom as impediments to student learning. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 26(1), 161-168.
  • Synnott, C. K. (2018). Smartphones in the classroom and students' misperceptions: Faculty development. Journal of Higher Education Management, 33(1), 119-135.
  • Tammy Lin, J. H. (2019). Permanently online and permanently connected: Taiwanese university students’ attachment style, mobile phone usage, and well-being. Chinese Journal of Communication, 12(1), 44-65. https://doi.org/10.1080/17544750.2018.1511606.
  • Tossell, C. C., Kortum, P., Shepard, C., Rahmati, A., & Zhong, L. (2015). You can lead a horse to water but you cannot make him learn: Smartphone use in higher education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(4), 713-724. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12176.
  • Uğur, N. G., & Koç, T. (2015). Mobile phones as distracting tools in the classroom: College students perspective. Alphanumeric Journal, 3(2), 57-64.
  • Vaismoradi, M. & Snelgrove, S. (2019). Theme in qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 20(3), 23, http://dx.doi.org/10.17169/fqs-20.3.3376.
  • Vannozzi, M., & Bridgestock, L. (2013). Students online usage - Global Market Report 2013 | Top Universities. Retrieved September 23, 2019, from https://www.topuniversities.com/publications/students-online-usage-global-trends-report-2013
  • Yıldız Durak, H. (2018). What would you do without your smartphone? Adolescents’ social media usage, locus of control, and loneliness as a predictor of nomophobia. Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addictions, 5(2), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.15805/addicta.2018.5.2.0025.
  • Yin, R. K. (2018). Case study research and applications: Design and methods (6th ed.). California: SAGE Publications. https://doi.org/10.1177/109634809702100108

Are We Online or in Class? Students’ Smartphone Usage Habits

Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, 31 - 45, 30.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.799435

Abstract

Smartphones, which enable us to be online everywhere and every time, are also commonly used by students today. This study aims to reveal undergraduate students’ habits of using smartphones. With this purpose, the phone usage track application was installed on students’ smartphones, and their 7-day use was recorded with the application and was then analyzed. In addition to that, the students’ views on using smartphones during classes were also investigated through open-ended questions. As a result, it was found that they used their smartphones for 4 hours and 50 minutes on average and that they used the same or different applications approximately 380 times a day. The most frequently used smartphone applications were found to be social media and messaging applications. The students were found to use their smartphones the most intensely between 21.00 and 24.00. The majority of the students used their smartphones during classes and their reasons for using the phones for non-educational purposes were more than the reasons for using them for educational purposes. The students stated that they used their smartphones for non-educational purposes such as check the time, make calls, and texting and for educational purposes such as research, take the photo of the blackboard or slides. While the great majority of the students had negative views about using smartphones during classes, some of them also had positive views.

References

  • Aldrich, S. T. (2017). Students’ and teachers’ perceptions of the use of mobile technology in university preparation classes. Unpublished master thesis. Massey University, Manawatu Campus, New Zealand.
  • Aggor, C. S., Tchao, E. T., Keelson, E., & Diawuo, K. (2019). Mobile phone usage among senior high and technical school students in Ghana and its impact on academic outcomes-A case study. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 903–913. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11932-4_83
  • Alfawareh, H. M., & Jusoh. S. (2014). Smartphones usage among university students: Najran University case. International Journal of Academic Research, 6(2), 321-326. https://doi.org/10.7813/2075-4124.2014/6-2/B.48
  • Anshari, M., Almunawar, M. N., Shahrill, M., Wicaksono, D. K., & Huda, M. (2017). Smartphones usage in the classrooms: Learning aid or interference?. Education and Information Technologies, 22(6), 3063-3079. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-017-9572-7
  • Ariel, Y., Elishar-Malka, V., Avidar, R., & Levy, E. C. (2017). Smartphone usage among young Israeli adults: a combined quantitative and qualitative approach. Israel Affairs, 23(5), 970-986. https://doi.org/10.1080/13537121.2017.1345422.
  • Bağcı, H. (2019). Analyzing the digital addiction of university students through diverse variables: Example of vocational school. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 6(1), 100-109. https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.546326
  • Beland, L. P., & Murphy, R. (2016). Ill Communication: Technology, distraction & student performance. Labour Economics, 41, 61-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.labeco.2016.04.004
  • Cha, S. S., & Seo, B. K. (2018). Smartphone use and smartphone addiction in middle school students in Korea: Prevalence, social networking service, and game use. Health Psychology Open, 5(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1177/2055102918755
  • Clarke, V. & Braun, V. (2013). Teaching thematic analysis: Overcoming challenges and developing strategies for effective learning, The Psychologist, 26(2). 120-123. https://thepsychologist.bps.org.uk/volume-26/edition-2/methods-teaching-thematic-analysis
  • Dempsey, M., & Brennan, A. (2018, March). The student voice: The students own views on smartphone usage and impact on their academic performance. In 12th International Technology, Education and Development Conference. International Academy of Technology, Education and Development (IATED).
  • Emanuel, R. C. (2013). The American college student cell phone survey. College Student Journal, 47(1), 75-81.
  • Fernandez, S. (2018). University student's perspectives on using cell phones in classrooms: Are they dialling up disaster?. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 17(1), 246-258.
  • Hirsh-Yechezkel, G., Mandelzweig, L., Novikov, I., Bar-Yosef, N., Livneh, I., Oren, M., ... & Sadetzki, S. (2019). Mobile phone-use habits among adolescents: predictors of intensive use. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 22(3), 212-219. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2018.0177.
  • Jesse, G. R. (2015). Smartphone and app usage among college students: Using smartphones effectively for social and educational needs. In Proceedings of the EDSIG Conference (p. n3424).
  • Joyce-Gibbons, A., Galloway, D., Mollel, A., Mgoma, S., Pima, M., & Deogratias, E. (2018). Mobile phone use in two secondary schools in Tanzania. Education and Information Technologies, 23(1), 73-92. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-017-9586-1
  • Kartal, G. (2019). What’s up with WhatsApp? A critical analysis of mobile instant messaging research in language learning. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 6(2), 352-365. https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.599138
  • Kates, A. W., Wu, H., & Coryn, C. L. (2018). The effects of mobile phone use on academic performance: A meta-analysis. Computers & Education, 127, 107-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2018.08.012
  • Kim, H. J., Lee, J. M., & Rha, J. Y. (2017). Understanding the role of user resistance on mobile learning usage among university students. Computers & Education, 113, 108-118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2017.05.015
  • Kim, I., Kim, R., Kim, H., Kim, D., Han, K., Lee, P. H., ... & Lee, U. (2019). Understanding smartphone usage in college classrooms: A long-term measurement study. Computers & Education. 141(2019), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.103611
  • Koroleva, D. (2016). Always online: Mobile technology and social media usage by modern teenagers at home and at school. Educational Studies, 1, 205-224. https://doi.org/10.17323/1814-9545-2016-1-205-224
  • Kuznekoff, J. H., Munz, S., & Titsworth, S. (2015). Mobile phones in the classroom: Examining the effects of texting, Twitter, and message content on student learning. Communication Education, 64(3), 344-365. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634523.2015.1038727
  • Lee, H., Ahn, H., Choi, S., & Choi, W. (2014). The SAMS: Smartphone addiction management system and verification. Journal of Medical Systems, 38(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s10916-013-0001-1
  • Lee, H., Ahn, H., Nguyen, T. G., Choi, S. W., & Kim, D. J. (2017). Comparing the self-report and measured smartphone usage of college students: A pilot study. Psychiatry Investigation, 14(2), 198-204. https://doi.org/10.4306/pi.2017.14.2.198
  • Lellis-Santos, C., & Halpin, P. A. (2018). Workshop report: “Using social media and smartphone applications in practical lessons to enhance student learning” in Búzios, Brazil (August 6–8, 2017).
  • Lepp, A., Barkley, J. E., & Karpinski, A. C. (2015). The relationship between cell phone use and academic performance in a sample of us college students. Sage Open, 2015, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244015573169.
  • Lin, Y. H., Lin, Y. C., Lee, Y. H., Lin, P. H., Lin, S. H., Chang, L. R., ... & Kuo, T. B. (2015). Time distortion associated with smartphone addiction: Identifying smartphone addiction via a mobile application (App). Journal of Psychiatric Research, 65(2015), 139-145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires. 2015.04.003
  • Localytics (2018, December 18). US mobile app use, by time of day. Retrieved from https://www.marketingcharts.com/industries/media-and-entertainment-51390.
  • Merriam, S. B., & Tisdell, E. J. (2015). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Miles, Huberman, & Saldaña (2013). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook (3th ed.). California: SAGE Publications.
  • Nayak, J. K. (2018). Relationship among smartphone usage, addiction, academic performance and the moderating role of gender: A study of higher education students in India. Computers & Education, 123, 164-173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2018.05.007
  • Ng, S. F., Hassan, N. S. I. C., Nor, N. H. M., & Malek, N. A. A. (2017). The Relationship between smartphone use and academic performance: A case of students in A Malaysian tertiary Institution. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology, 5(4), 58-70.
  • O'Bannon, B. W., Waters, S., Lubke, J., Cady, J., & Rearden, K. (2017). Teachers and students poised to use mobile phones in the classroom. Computers in the Schools, 34(3), 125-141. https://doi.org/10.1080/07380569.2017.1347454
  • OFCOM (2018, August 2). UK Communications Market Report-2018. Retrieved from https://www.ofcom.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0022/117256/CMR-2018-narrative-report.pdf
  • Pulliam, D. (2017). Effect of student classroom cell phone usage on teachers. Unpublished master’s thesis. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.wku.edu/theses/1915
  • Richardson, M., Hussain, Z., & Griffiths, M. D. (2018). Problematic smartphone use, nature connectedness, and anxiety. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 7(1), 109-116. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.7.2018.10
  • Roberts, N., & Rees, M. (2014). Student use of mobile devices in university lectures. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 30(4), 415-426. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.589
  • Roblyer, M. D. (2016). Integrating educational technology into teaching (7th ed.). Boston: Pearson.
  • Rozgonjuk, D., Elhai, J. D., Ryan, T., & Scott, G. G. (2019). Fear of missing out is associated with disrupted activities from receiving smartphone notifications and surface learning in college students. Computers & Education, 140, 103590. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2019.05.016
  • Rozgonjuk, D., Kattago, M., & Täht, K. (2018). Social media use in lectures mediates the relationship between procrastination and problematic smartphone use. Computers in Human Behavior, 89, 191-198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.08.003
  • Rozgonjuk, D., Saal, K., & Täht, K. (2018). Problematic smartphone use, deep and surface approaches to learning, and social media use in lectures. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(1), 92. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010092
  • Samaha, M., & Hawi, N. S. (2016). Relationships among smartphone addiction, stress, academic performance, and satisfaction with life. Computers in Human Behavior, 57, 321-325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.12.045
  • Shrivastava, A., & Shrivastava, M. (2014). Classroom distraction due to mobile phones usage by students: College teachers’ perceptions. International Journal of Computer and Information Technology, 3(3), 638-642.
  • Soegoto, H. (2019). Smart phones usage among college students. Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 14(3), 1248-1259. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12306
  • Synnott, C. K. (2015). Smartphones in the classroom as impediments to student learning. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 26(1), 161-168.
  • Synnott, C. K. (2018). Smartphones in the classroom and students' misperceptions: Faculty development. Journal of Higher Education Management, 33(1), 119-135.
  • Tammy Lin, J. H. (2019). Permanently online and permanently connected: Taiwanese university students’ attachment style, mobile phone usage, and well-being. Chinese Journal of Communication, 12(1), 44-65. https://doi.org/10.1080/17544750.2018.1511606.
  • Tossell, C. C., Kortum, P., Shepard, C., Rahmati, A., & Zhong, L. (2015). You can lead a horse to water but you cannot make him learn: Smartphone use in higher education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(4), 713-724. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12176.
  • Uğur, N. G., & Koç, T. (2015). Mobile phones as distracting tools in the classroom: College students perspective. Alphanumeric Journal, 3(2), 57-64.
  • Vaismoradi, M. & Snelgrove, S. (2019). Theme in qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 20(3), 23, http://dx.doi.org/10.17169/fqs-20.3.3376.
  • Vannozzi, M., & Bridgestock, L. (2013). Students online usage - Global Market Report 2013 | Top Universities. Retrieved September 23, 2019, from https://www.topuniversities.com/publications/students-online-usage-global-trends-report-2013
  • Yıldız Durak, H. (2018). What would you do without your smartphone? Adolescents’ social media usage, locus of control, and loneliness as a predictor of nomophobia. Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addictions, 5(2), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.15805/addicta.2018.5.2.0025.
  • Yin, R. K. (2018). Case study research and applications: Design and methods (6th ed.). California: SAGE Publications. https://doi.org/10.1177/109634809702100108

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Ömer KOÇAK (Primary Author)
Atatürk Üniversitesi
0000-0001-7756-7169
Türkiye


Yüksel GÖKTAŞ
ATATURK UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-7341-2466
Türkiye

Publication Date June 30, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2

Cite

APA Koçak, Ö. & Göktaş, Y. (2021). Are We Online or in Class? Students’ Smartphone Usage Habits . International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research , 8 (2) , 31-45 . DOI: 10.33200/ijcer.799435

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IJCER (International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research) ISSN: 2148-3868