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Entrepreneurship Competencies of School Principals: A Scale Development Study

Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, 55 - 80, 03.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.847110

Abstract

This research aims to produce a reliable and valid scale that includes the entrepreneurship competencies of school principals according to the perceptions of teachers working in state-owned schools. First, after the literature review, an item pool consisting of five-point Likert item type and seventy-four items was created, and then the relevant items were presented to eleven experts to determine the content validity. After the expert evaluations, the content validity rates of the relevant items were calculated with the Lawshe technique, the nineteen items below the criterion value were removed from the scale, and a scale draft form consisting of fifty-five items was created. To carry out the EFA of the scale, the first application was performed with 436 teachers working in Çekmeköy district of Istanbul province on an online platform in March-April 2020. In the EFA process carried out in line with the data obtained, observations revealed that the scale had a four-factor structure. Then, the Varimax technique was used to clarify the distribution of scale items to factors, and seventeen items that were found to have a load of .30 and above from more than one factor and that the load difference was less than .100 were removed from the scale. As a result of EFA, a scale consisting of 38 items and subdimensions of “Personal Competencies”, “Organizational Competencies”, “Relational Competencies”, and “Commitment Self-Confidence Competencies” which explain 73.32% of the total variance was obtained. Subsequently, reliability coefficients of the scale (Cronbach’s Alpha .98), discrimination indices, item-total – item-residual correlations, and correlations between scale total and subdimensions were calculated. Finally, to carry out the CFA, the second application was carried out online with a sample of 724 teachers in May-June 2020 and the obtained goodness of fit values confirmed the scale model. All these obtained values confirm the valid and reliable structure of the developed scale.   

References

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Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, 55 - 80, 03.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.847110

Abstract

References

  • Ağca, V. (2004). Intrapreneurship construct and it’s effects on the firm performance a survey of the tekstile firms in Denizli (Unpublished PhD Thesis). Afyon Kocatepe University, Social Sciences Institute, Afyon.
  • Alberti, F., Sciascia, S., & Poli, A. (2004). Entrepreneurship education: Notes on an ongoing debate. 14th Annual Intent Conference, University of Napoli Federico II Italy, 4-7 July 2004.
  • Albrıght, J. J., & Park, H. M. (2009). Confirmatory Factor Analysis Using Amos, LISREL, Mplus, SAS/STAT CALIS, University Information Technology Services Center for Statistical and Mathematical Computing Indiana University. https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/2022/19736/Confirmatory%20Factor%20Analysis%20using%20Amos%2c%20LISREL%2c%20Mplus%2c%20SAS%3aSTAT%20CALIS.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • Alfırevıc, N., Vıcan, D., Pavıcıc, C., & Petkovıc, S. (2018). Entrepreneurial Orientation of School Principals and Principalship in Croatia and Bosnia & Herzegovina: Psychological, Educational and Social Perspectives. Rev. soc. polit., 25 (1), 85-97. Doi: 10.3935/rsp.v25i1.1461
  • Altunışık, R., Coşkun, R., Bayraktaroğlu, S., & Yıldırım, E. (2010). Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntemleri SPSS Uygulamalı[SPSS Applied Research Methods in Social Sciences]. Sakarya: Sakarya Yayıncılık.
  • Armuna, C., Ramos, S., Juan, J., Feijoo, C., & Arenal, A. (2020). From stand-up to start-up: exploring entrepreneurship competences and STEM women’s intention. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, (cilt sayı yok), 1-24.
  • Ayub, D., & Othman, N. (2013). Entrepreneurship Management Practices in Creating Effective Schools. Asian Social Science, 9 (12), 69-78.
  • Bacigalupo, M., Kampylis, P., Punie, Y., & Van den Brande, G. (2016). EntreComp: The Entrepreneurship Competence Framework. Luxembourg: Publication Office of the European Union.
  • Bentler, P. M., & Bonett, D. G. (1980). Significance Tests and Goodness of Fit in The Analysis of Covariance Structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88(3), 588-606. Doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.88.3.588
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  • Blake, B., & Mestry, R. (2014). The changing dimensions of the finances on urban schools: An entrepreneurial approach for principals. Education as Change, 18(1), 163–178. Doi:10.1080/16823206.2013.847017
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2006). Sosyal Bilimler İçin Veri Analizi: İstatistik, Araştırma Deseni SPSS Uygulamaları ve Yorum [Data Analysis for Social Sciences: Statistics, Research Design, SPSS Applications and Interpretation]. Ankara: PegemA Yayıncılık.
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  • Bygrave, W. D.,& Hofer, C. W. (1992). Theorizing about Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16(2), 13–22. Doi: 10.1177/104225879201600203
  • Byrne, B. M. (2011). Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming (Multivariate Applications Series), Routledge, New York.
  • Caird, S. (1991). Research note: The enterprising tendency of occupational groups. International Small Business Journal, 9(4), 75–181.
  • Chen, C. C., Greene, P. G., & Crick, A. (1998). Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs from managers? Journal of Business Venturing, 13(4), 295–316. Doi: 10.1016/S0883-9026(97)00029-3
  • Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1995). Constructing Validity: Basic Issues in Objective Scale Development. Psychological Assessment, 7(3), 309-319. Doi:10.1037/1040-3590.7.3.309
  • Currie, G., Humphreys, M., Ucbasaran, D., & McManus, S. (2008). Entrepreneurial leadership in the English public sector: Paradox or possibility? Public Administration, 86(4), 987-1008. Doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9299.2008.00736.x
  • Çokluk, Ö., Şekercioğlu, G., & Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2010). Sosyal Bilimler İçin Çok Değişkenli İstatistik SPSS ve LISREL Uygulamaları [SPSS and LISREL Applications Multivariate Statistics for Social Sciences]. Ankara: Pegem Akademi Yayıncılık.
  • Dollinger, M. J. (2008). Entrepreneurshıp: Strategies and Resources. Illinois: Marsh Publıcatıons.
  • Dornelas, J. C. A. (2008). Empreendedorismo: transformando idéias em negócios [Entrepreneurship: turning ideas into business]. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier.
  • Drucker, P. F. (1985).Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Practice and Principles. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1496169.
  • Du Toit, C. M. (1990). Fundamental business economics. Durban: Butterworths.
  • Erkorkmaz, Ü., Etikan, İ., Demir, O., Özdamar, K. ve Sanisoğlu, S. Y. (2013). Doğrulayıcı Faktör Analizi ve Uyum İndeksleri [Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Fit Indices]. Turkiye Klinikleri, 33 (1), 210-223. Doi: 10.5336/medsci.2011-26747
  • Fernald, L., Solomon, G.T. & Tarabishy, A. (2005). A new paradigm: entrepreneurial leadership. Southern Business Review, 30(2), 1–10.
  • Field, A. (2009). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS: Introducing Statistical Method. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Fraenkel, J. R., & Wallen, N. E. (1993). How to Design And Evaluate Research İn Education. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill.
  • George, D., & Mallery, M. (2010). SPSS for Windows Step by Step: A Simple Guide and Reference, 17.0 update. Boston: Pearson.
  • Germain, M. L. (2006). Stages of Psychometric Measure Development: The example of the Generalized Expertise Measure (GEM). Online Submission. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED492775.pdf adresinden edinilmiştir.
  • Ghasemi, F., Rastegar, A., Jahromi, R.G., & Marvdashti, R. R. (2011). The relationship between creativity and achievement motivation with high school students’ entrepreneurship. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences, (30), 1291-1296. Doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.250
  • Gibb, A. (1998).Entrepreneurial Core Capacities, Competitiveness and Management Development in the 21st Century. Durham: DUBS.
  • Gupta, V., MacMillan, I. C., & Surie, G. (2004). Entrepreneurial Leadership: Developing and Measuring A Cross-Cultural Construct. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(2), 241-260. Doi: 10.1016/S0883-9026(03)00040-5
  • Gürbüz, S., & Şahin, F. (2018). Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntemleri Felsefe, Yöntem, Analiz [Research Methods in Social Sciences: Philosophy, Method, Analysis]. Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Mesut DEMİRBİLEK (Primary Author)
Marmara University
0000-0002-7570-7807
Türkiye


Münevver ÇETİN
MARMARA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-1203-9098
Türkiye

Publication Date September 3, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3

Cite

Bibtex @research article { ijcer847110, journal = {International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research}, issn = {}, eissn = {2148-3868}, address = {}, publisher = {Muhammed ZİNCİRLİ}, year = {2021}, volume = {8}, pages = {55 - 80}, doi = {10.33200/ijcer.847110}, title = {Entrepreneurship Competencies of School Principals: A Scale Development Study}, key = {cite}, author = {Demirbilek, Mesut and Çetin, Münevver} }
APA Demirbilek, M. & Çetin, M. (2021). Entrepreneurship Competencies of School Principals: A Scale Development Study . International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research , 8 (3) , 55-80 . DOI: 10.33200/ijcer.847110
MLA Demirbilek, M. , Çetin, M. "Entrepreneurship Competencies of School Principals: A Scale Development Study" . International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research 8 (2021 ): 55-80 <http://ijcer.net/en/pub/issue/64631/847110>
Chicago Demirbilek, M. , Çetin, M. "Entrepreneurship Competencies of School Principals: A Scale Development Study". International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research 8 (2021 ): 55-80
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Entrepreneurship Competencies of School Principals: A Scale Development Study AU - Mesut Demirbilek , Münevver Çetin Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.33200/ijcer.847110 DO - 10.33200/ijcer.847110 T2 - International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 55 EP - 80 VL - 8 IS - 3 SN - -2148-3868 M3 - doi: 10.33200/ijcer.847110 UR - https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.847110 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research Entrepreneurship Competencies of School Principals: A Scale Development Study %A Mesut Demirbilek , Münevver Çetin %T Entrepreneurship Competencies of School Principals: A Scale Development Study %D 2021 %J International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research %P -2148-3868 %V 8 %N 3 %R doi: 10.33200/ijcer.847110 %U 10.33200/ijcer.847110
ISNAD Demirbilek, Mesut , Çetin, Münevver . "Entrepreneurship Competencies of School Principals: A Scale Development Study". International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research 8 / 3 (September 2021): 55-80 . https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.847110
AMA Demirbilek M. , Çetin M. Entrepreneurship Competencies of School Principals: A Scale Development Study. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research. 2021; 8(3): 55-80.
Vancouver Demirbilek M. , Çetin M. Entrepreneurship Competencies of School Principals: A Scale Development Study. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research. 2021; 8(3): 55-80.
IEEE M. Demirbilek and M. Çetin , "Entrepreneurship Competencies of School Principals: A Scale Development Study", International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 55-80, Sep. 2021, doi:10.33200/ijcer.847110

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IJCER (International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research) ISSN: 2148-3868