Research Article
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The Development and Validation of the Emotional Literacy Skills Scale

Year 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, 258 - 270, 30.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.757853

Abstract

Emotional literacy is the ability to understand, express and regulate emotions in social contexts. It emphasizes the ability to communicate with certain feeling words in interpersonal relationships. It stands as a bridge between the thoughts and emotions of school stakeholders, contributing to more effective learning, safer schools, and a democratic climate (O’Hara, 2011). It is possible to teach emotions academically, even to make them a part of the curriculum (Antidote, 2003); however, it is essential to also see emotional literacy as a vital skill through the values of the school and the behaviors of teachers. Therefore, it is valuable to evaluate the emotions of teachers in the school environment. To do this, it was the aim of this study to develop a reliable and valid measurement tool -- the Emotional Literacy Skills Scale (ELSS). The validity of the model was confirmed via exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. We found a Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient of .85. The findings showed that the Emotional Literacy Skills Scale is valid and reliable and formed by five factors: Motivation, empathy, self-regulation, emotional awareness, and social skills.

References

  • Alemdar, M. (2014). Examining the emotional literacy skill levels of high school students (Unpublished master’s dissertation). Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Eskişehir.
  • Alemdar, M. (2018). Examining the emotional literacy skill levels of high school students. Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 13(2), 69-86. DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2018.143.4
  • Alemdar, M. (2019). Reflection of social capital in educational processes: Emotional literacy and emotional labor context (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Eskişehir.
  • Akbağ, M., Eminoğlu Küçüktepe, S., & Eminoğlu Özmercan, E. (2016). A study on Emotional Literacy Scale Development. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(5), 85-91. https://doi.org/10.11114/jets.v4i5.1419
  • Antidote (2003). The emotional literacy handbook: Promoting whole-school strategies. London: David Fulton in association with Antidote.
  • Bocchino, R. (1999). Emotional literacy: To be different kind of smart. London: Sage.
  • Bryman, A. (2012). Social research methods. New York: Oxford University.
  • Byrne, B. M. (2016). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: basic concepts, applications, and programming. New York: Routledge
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2011). Handbook of data analysis for social sciences. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
  • Carnwell, R., & Baker, S. A. (2007). A qualitative evaluation of a project to enhance pupils' emotional literacy through a student assistance program. Pastoral Care in Education: An International Journal of Personal, Social and Emotional Development, 25(1), 33-41.
  • Cole, D. A. (1987). Utility of confirmatory factor analysis in test validation research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 584-594.
  • Claxton, G. (2005). An intelligent look at emotional intelligence. London: ATL. Retrieved from http://www.atl.org.uk/Images/Emotional%20intelligence.pdf
  • Çokluk, Ö., Şekercioğlu, G., & Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2014). Multivariate statistics-Spss and Lisrel applications for social sciences. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
  • Coşkun, K. (2015). Impact of emotional literacy training on students’ emotional intelligence level in primary schools (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun.
  • DeVellis, R. F. (2012). Scale development: Theory and application. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • Dickson, E., & Burton, N. (2011). ‘You looking at me?’: Investigating 9 and 13 year-olds' ability to encode and decode nonverbal communication and demonstrate ‘emotional literacy’. Education 3-13, 39(3), 265-276. DOI: 10.1080/03004270903505062
  • Doll, W. J., Xia, W., & Torkzadeh, G. (1994). A confirmatory factor analysis of the end-user computing satisfaction instrument. MIS Quarterly, 18(4), 43–461.
  • Faupel, A. (2003). Emotional literacy assessment and intervention ages 11-16. Southampton: Nfer-Nelson.
  • Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using SPSS. London: Sage.
  • Flynn, S. J. (2010). A comparative and exploratory study of the nfer-nelson emotional literacy scale in an Irish context (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Exeter, The UK.
  • Ginott, H. (1965). Between parent and child. New York: Macmillan Company.
  • Ginott, H., Ginott, A., & Goddard, H. W. (2003). Between parent and child (Revised Edition). New York: Three Rivers.
  • Gong, S., Chai, X., Duan, T., Zhong, L., & Jiao, Y. (2013). Chinese teachers’ emotion regulation goals and strategies. Psychology, 4(11), 870–877.
  • Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., & Anderson, R. (2010). Multivariate data analysis. London: Prentice-Hall.
  • Hargreaves, A. (2001). The emotional geographies of teaching. Teachers College Record, 103(6), 1056-1080.
  • Holmes, G. (2016). Emotional literacy: an investigatıon into changes in outcomes and mechanisms following a small group targeted intervention. A case study with primary aged children (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Birmingham, The UK.
  • Joseph, G., Strain, P., & Ostrosky, M. M. (2005). Fostering emotional literacy in young children: Labeling emotions. What Works Brief, Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning. Retrieved from https://challengingbehavior.cbcs.usf.edu/docs/whatworks/WhatWorksBrief_21.pdf
  • Jöreskog, K., & Sörbom, D. (2001). LISREL 8.51. Mooresvile: Scientific Software.
  • Kandemir, M. ve Dündar, H. (2008). Emotional literacy and emotional literacy learning environments. Sakarya University Journal of Education Faculty, (16), 83-90.
  • Kayadibi, F. (2001). Factors affecting the quality of education and the effect of quality education on production. Journal of Istanbul University Faculty of Theology, 3(1), 71-94.
  • Killick, S. (2006). Emotional literacy: at the heart of the school ethos. London: Paul Chapman.
  • Kline, P. (1994). An easy guide to factor analysis. New York: Routledge.
  • Kline, R. B. (2005). Principle and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford.
  • Mader, L. (2005). Men who abuse: Examining emotional literacy in men’s story (Master's thesis). Acadia University, Scotland.
  • Matthews, B. (2006). Engaging education: Developing emotional literacy, equity, and co-education. England: Open University
  • Meekums, B. (2008). Developing emotional literacy through ındividual dance movement therapy: A pilot study. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 13(2), 95-110. DOI: 10.1080/13632750802027614
  • Ministry of National Education (2017). General competencies for teaching profession. Retrieved from https://oygm.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2018_06/29111119_TeachersGeneralCompetencies.pdf
  • O'Hara, D. (2011). The impact of peer mentoring on pupils’ emotional literacy competencies. Educational Psychology in Practice, 27(3), 271–291. DOI: 10.1080/02667363.2011.603533
  • Orbach, S. (1998). Emotional literacy. Young Minds Magazine, (33), 12-13.
  • Park, J. (1999). Emotional literacy: Education for meaning. International Journal of Children's Spirituality, 4(1), 19-28. DOI:10.1080/1364436990040103
  • Palancı, M., Kandemir, M., Dündar, H., & Özpolat, A. R. (2014). Validity and reliability study of emotional literacy scale. International Journal of Human Sciences, 11(1), ss. 481-494. doi: 10.14687/ijhs.v11i1.2806
  • Perry, L., Lennie, C., & Humphrey, N. (2008). Emotional literacy in the primary classroom: teacher perceptions and practices. Education 3-13, 36, 27-37. DOI: 10.1080/03004270701576851
  • Rae, T. (2012). Developing emotional literacy – approaches for staff and students developing an approach in the SEBD School. International Perspectives on Inclusive Education, 2, 1-18. DOI:10.1108/S1479-3636(2012)0000002004
  • Rasch, D., Kubinger, K. D., & Yanagida, T. (2011). Statistics in psychology using R and SPSS. Chichester: J. Wiley.
  • Raykov T., & Marcoulides, G. A. (2006). A first course in structural equation modeling. NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates
  • Ripley, K., & Simpson, E. (2007). First steps to emotional literacy: A program for children in the Foundation Stage and Key Stage 1 and for older children who have language and/or social communication difficulties. London: A David Fulton.
  • Sipahi B.,Yurtkoru, E. S., & Çinko M. (2008). Data analysis with SPSS in social sciences. Istanbul: Beta.
  • Sharp, P. (2001). Nurturing emotional literacy. London: David Fulton.
  • Southampton Psychology Service. (2001). Emotional literacy: Assessment and intervention: Ages 11–16. London: nferNelson.
  • Steiner, C. (2003). Emotional literacy: Intelligence with a heart. CA: Personhood.
  • Steiner, C. M. (1979). Healing alcoholism. New York: Grove.
  • Stone, V. M. (2005). An exploration of the validity of a measure of emotional literacy. Unpublished Master’s Dissertation, Cardiff University, Wales.
  • Şahin, D. B., & Gülleroğlu, H. D. (2013). Investigation of psychometric properties of scales created with different item analysis techniques used to select items for Likert type scales. Asian Journal of Instruction, 1(2), 18-28.
  • Şencan, H. (2005). Reliability and validity in social and behavioral measures. Ankara: Seçkin.
  • Şişman, M. (2009). Öğretmen yeterlilikleri: Modern bir söylem ve retorik. İnönü Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 10(3), 63–82
  • Uzan, M. F. (2018). Evaluation of emotional perception skill levels of learners of Turkish as a foreign language (Unpublished master's thesis). Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale.
  • Weare, K. (2004). Developing the emotionally literate school. London: Paul Chapman.
  • Weare, K., & Gray, G. (2003). What works in developing children’s emotional and social competence and wellbeing? London: Department for Educational and Skills.
  • West, S. G., Taylor, A. B., & Wu, W. (2012). Model Fit and Model Selection in Structural Equation Modeling. Hoyle, R H. (Ed), Handbook of Structural Equation Modeling içinde (209-231). New York: Guilford.

Year 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, 258 - 270, 30.12.2020
https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.757853

Abstract

References

  • Alemdar, M. (2014). Examining the emotional literacy skill levels of high school students (Unpublished master’s dissertation). Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Eskişehir.
  • Alemdar, M. (2018). Examining the emotional literacy skill levels of high school students. Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 13(2), 69-86. DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2018.143.4
  • Alemdar, M. (2019). Reflection of social capital in educational processes: Emotional literacy and emotional labor context (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Eskişehir.
  • Akbağ, M., Eminoğlu Küçüktepe, S., & Eminoğlu Özmercan, E. (2016). A study on Emotional Literacy Scale Development. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(5), 85-91. https://doi.org/10.11114/jets.v4i5.1419
  • Antidote (2003). The emotional literacy handbook: Promoting whole-school strategies. London: David Fulton in association with Antidote.
  • Bocchino, R. (1999). Emotional literacy: To be different kind of smart. London: Sage.
  • Bryman, A. (2012). Social research methods. New York: Oxford University.
  • Byrne, B. M. (2016). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: basic concepts, applications, and programming. New York: Routledge
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2011). Handbook of data analysis for social sciences. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
  • Carnwell, R., & Baker, S. A. (2007). A qualitative evaluation of a project to enhance pupils' emotional literacy through a student assistance program. Pastoral Care in Education: An International Journal of Personal, Social and Emotional Development, 25(1), 33-41.
  • Cole, D. A. (1987). Utility of confirmatory factor analysis in test validation research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 584-594.
  • Claxton, G. (2005). An intelligent look at emotional intelligence. London: ATL. Retrieved from http://www.atl.org.uk/Images/Emotional%20intelligence.pdf
  • Çokluk, Ö., Şekercioğlu, G., & Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2014). Multivariate statistics-Spss and Lisrel applications for social sciences. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
  • Coşkun, K. (2015). Impact of emotional literacy training on students’ emotional intelligence level in primary schools (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun.
  • DeVellis, R. F. (2012). Scale development: Theory and application. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • Dickson, E., & Burton, N. (2011). ‘You looking at me?’: Investigating 9 and 13 year-olds' ability to encode and decode nonverbal communication and demonstrate ‘emotional literacy’. Education 3-13, 39(3), 265-276. DOI: 10.1080/03004270903505062
  • Doll, W. J., Xia, W., & Torkzadeh, G. (1994). A confirmatory factor analysis of the end-user computing satisfaction instrument. MIS Quarterly, 18(4), 43–461.
  • Faupel, A. (2003). Emotional literacy assessment and intervention ages 11-16. Southampton: Nfer-Nelson.
  • Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using SPSS. London: Sage.
  • Flynn, S. J. (2010). A comparative and exploratory study of the nfer-nelson emotional literacy scale in an Irish context (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Exeter, The UK.
  • Ginott, H. (1965). Between parent and child. New York: Macmillan Company.
  • Ginott, H., Ginott, A., & Goddard, H. W. (2003). Between parent and child (Revised Edition). New York: Three Rivers.
  • Gong, S., Chai, X., Duan, T., Zhong, L., & Jiao, Y. (2013). Chinese teachers’ emotion regulation goals and strategies. Psychology, 4(11), 870–877.
  • Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., & Anderson, R. (2010). Multivariate data analysis. London: Prentice-Hall.
  • Hargreaves, A. (2001). The emotional geographies of teaching. Teachers College Record, 103(6), 1056-1080.
  • Holmes, G. (2016). Emotional literacy: an investigatıon into changes in outcomes and mechanisms following a small group targeted intervention. A case study with primary aged children (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Birmingham, The UK.
  • Joseph, G., Strain, P., & Ostrosky, M. M. (2005). Fostering emotional literacy in young children: Labeling emotions. What Works Brief, Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning. Retrieved from https://challengingbehavior.cbcs.usf.edu/docs/whatworks/WhatWorksBrief_21.pdf
  • Jöreskog, K., & Sörbom, D. (2001). LISREL 8.51. Mooresvile: Scientific Software.
  • Kandemir, M. ve Dündar, H. (2008). Emotional literacy and emotional literacy learning environments. Sakarya University Journal of Education Faculty, (16), 83-90.
  • Kayadibi, F. (2001). Factors affecting the quality of education and the effect of quality education on production. Journal of Istanbul University Faculty of Theology, 3(1), 71-94.
  • Killick, S. (2006). Emotional literacy: at the heart of the school ethos. London: Paul Chapman.
  • Kline, P. (1994). An easy guide to factor analysis. New York: Routledge.
  • Kline, R. B. (2005). Principle and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford.
  • Mader, L. (2005). Men who abuse: Examining emotional literacy in men’s story (Master's thesis). Acadia University, Scotland.
  • Matthews, B. (2006). Engaging education: Developing emotional literacy, equity, and co-education. England: Open University
  • Meekums, B. (2008). Developing emotional literacy through ındividual dance movement therapy: A pilot study. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 13(2), 95-110. DOI: 10.1080/13632750802027614
  • Ministry of National Education (2017). General competencies for teaching profession. Retrieved from https://oygm.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2018_06/29111119_TeachersGeneralCompetencies.pdf
  • O'Hara, D. (2011). The impact of peer mentoring on pupils’ emotional literacy competencies. Educational Psychology in Practice, 27(3), 271–291. DOI: 10.1080/02667363.2011.603533
  • Orbach, S. (1998). Emotional literacy. Young Minds Magazine, (33), 12-13.
  • Park, J. (1999). Emotional literacy: Education for meaning. International Journal of Children's Spirituality, 4(1), 19-28. DOI:10.1080/1364436990040103
  • Palancı, M., Kandemir, M., Dündar, H., & Özpolat, A. R. (2014). Validity and reliability study of emotional literacy scale. International Journal of Human Sciences, 11(1), ss. 481-494. doi: 10.14687/ijhs.v11i1.2806
  • Perry, L., Lennie, C., & Humphrey, N. (2008). Emotional literacy in the primary classroom: teacher perceptions and practices. Education 3-13, 36, 27-37. DOI: 10.1080/03004270701576851
  • Rae, T. (2012). Developing emotional literacy – approaches for staff and students developing an approach in the SEBD School. International Perspectives on Inclusive Education, 2, 1-18. DOI:10.1108/S1479-3636(2012)0000002004
  • Rasch, D., Kubinger, K. D., & Yanagida, T. (2011). Statistics in psychology using R and SPSS. Chichester: J. Wiley.
  • Raykov T., & Marcoulides, G. A. (2006). A first course in structural equation modeling. NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates
  • Ripley, K., & Simpson, E. (2007). First steps to emotional literacy: A program for children in the Foundation Stage and Key Stage 1 and for older children who have language and/or social communication difficulties. London: A David Fulton.
  • Sipahi B.,Yurtkoru, E. S., & Çinko M. (2008). Data analysis with SPSS in social sciences. Istanbul: Beta.
  • Sharp, P. (2001). Nurturing emotional literacy. London: David Fulton.
  • Southampton Psychology Service. (2001). Emotional literacy: Assessment and intervention: Ages 11–16. London: nferNelson.
  • Steiner, C. (2003). Emotional literacy: Intelligence with a heart. CA: Personhood.
  • Steiner, C. M. (1979). Healing alcoholism. New York: Grove.
  • Stone, V. M. (2005). An exploration of the validity of a measure of emotional literacy. Unpublished Master’s Dissertation, Cardiff University, Wales.
  • Şahin, D. B., & Gülleroğlu, H. D. (2013). Investigation of psychometric properties of scales created with different item analysis techniques used to select items for Likert type scales. Asian Journal of Instruction, 1(2), 18-28.
  • Şencan, H. (2005). Reliability and validity in social and behavioral measures. Ankara: Seçkin.
  • Şişman, M. (2009). Öğretmen yeterlilikleri: Modern bir söylem ve retorik. İnönü Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 10(3), 63–82
  • Uzan, M. F. (2018). Evaluation of emotional perception skill levels of learners of Turkish as a foreign language (Unpublished master's thesis). Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale.
  • Weare, K. (2004). Developing the emotionally literate school. London: Paul Chapman.
  • Weare, K., & Gray, G. (2003). What works in developing children’s emotional and social competence and wellbeing? London: Department for Educational and Skills.
  • West, S. G., Taylor, A. B., & Wu, W. (2012). Model Fit and Model Selection in Structural Equation Modeling. Hoyle, R H. (Ed), Handbook of Structural Equation Modeling içinde (209-231). New York: Guilford.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Melek ALEMDAR (Primary Author)
T.C. MİLLİ EĞİTİM BAKANLIĞI
0000-0002-9580-8226
Türkiye


Hüseyin ANILAN
ESKİŞEHİR OSMANGAZİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, EĞİTİM FAKÜLTESİ, İLKÖĞRETİM BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0001-7201-7467
Türkiye

Supporting Institution Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi Bilimsel Araştırma Projeleri Komisyonu
Project Number 2017-1553
Thanks Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi BAP Komisyonu'na katkılarından ötürü teşekkürü borç biliriz.
Publication Date December 30, 2020
Published in Issue Year 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2

Cite

APA Alemdar, M. & Anılan, H. (2020). The Development and Validation of the Emotional Literacy Skills Scale . International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research , 7 (2) , 258-270 . DOI: 10.33200/ijcer.757853

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IJCER (International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research) ISSN: 2148-3868