Transition from high school to college can be a struggle for many students. To support the first-year college students during the transition, various factors can be taken into consideration. In this study, we focused on the role of resilience, social self-efficacy, college orientation, and student organization involvement in college adjustment among the first-year Turkish college students. Using snowball sampling, we distributed our online survey package across Turkey and recruited a total of 346 participants. To measure the concept of college adjustment, we developed and validated Turkish language version of the Inventory of New College Student Adjustment (INCA-T) due to the limitations of existing instruments. The confirmatory factor analysis results indicated that the 10-item INCA-T revealed a good fit with Turkish sample. Then, using INCA-T, we evaluated the relationship among college adjustment, resilience, social self-efficacy, attendance of a student orientation program, and involvement in student organizations. Multiple regression analysis results showed that resilience and social self-efficacy were significant predictors of college adjustment among the first-year students. Also, individuals participating in student orientation and student organizations reported significantly greater adjustment to college. Considering the findings of the present study, we discussed implications for faculty advisors and college counselors, then provided recommendations for future researchers.