Research Article
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Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, 206 - 218, 30.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.886013

Abstract

References

  • AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science) (1994). Benchmarks for science literacy. Oxford University Press.
  • Aksoy, G. (2019). Exploration of Pre-Service Science Teachers' Perceptions towards Secondary School Science Curriculum. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 6(1), 11-28.
  • Altunbay, M. (2017). “Observation” as a scientific process skill in the Turkish Teaching Curriculum. Journal of Mother Tongue Education, 5(4), 823-836.
  • Bensusen, S. J. (2020). The Power of Observation. Science and Children, 57(5), 60-65.
  • Bodner, G., & Elmas, R. (2020). The Impact of Inquiry-Based, Group-Work Approaches to Instruction on Both Students and Their Peer Leaders. European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 8(1), 51-66.
  • Brown, P. L., & Concannon, J. (2016). Students use of the PSOE model to understand weather and climate. Science Activities, 53(3), 87-91.
  • Chalmers, A. F. (2013). What is this thing called science? Hackett Publishing.
  • Checkovich, B. H. & Sterling, D. R. (2001). Oh say can you see. Science and Children, 38(4), 32-35.
  • Chinn, C. A., & Malhotra, B. A. (2001). Epistemologically authentic scientific reasoning. In K. Crowley, C. D. Schunn, & T. Okada (Eds.), Designing for science:Implications from everyday, classroom, and professional settings (pp. 351–392). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Dilek, H., Tasdemir, A., Konca, A.S. & Baltaci, S. (2020). Preschool children’s science motivation and process skills during inquiry-based STEM activities. Journal of Education in Science, Environment and Health (JESEH), 6(2), 92-104.
  • Dotger, S., & Walsh, D. (2015). Elementary art & science: Observational drawing in lesson study. International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, 4(1), 26-38.
  • Driver, R. (1983). The pupil as scientist. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
  • Eberbach, C., & Crowley, K. (2009). From Everyday to Scientific Observation: How Children Learn to Observe the Biologist's World. Review of Educational Research, 79(1), 39-68.
  • Elmas, R. (2020). The Meaning and Characteristics of Context and Students’ Context Preferences in Science Education. Journal of Turkish Chemical Society Section C: Chemistry Education (JOTCSC), 5(1), 53-70.
  • Elmas, R., Akın, F. N., & Geban, Ö. (2013). Ask a scientist website: trends in chemistry questions in Turkey. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 22(4), 559-569.
  • Ewing, A. M. (1936). Turning accidents into profit through careful observation. Journal of Chemical Education, 13(11), 530.
  • Griffiths, A. K. & Thompson, J. (1993). Secondary School Students’ Understandings of Scientific Processes: An Interview Study. Research in Science & Technological Education, 11(1), 15-26.
  • Grimm, E. D., Kaufman, T., & Doty, D. (2014). Rethinking classroom observation. Educational Leadership, 71(8), 24-29.
  • Haslam, F. & Gunstone, R. (1996). Observation in science classes: Students’ beliefs about its nature and purpose. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, St Louis, MO.
  • Haslam, F. & Gunstone, R. (1998). The influence of teachers on student observation in science classes. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, San Diego, CA.
  • Haury, D. L. (2002). Fundamental skills in science: Observation (ERIC Digest EDO-SE-02-05). Columbus, OH: ERIC Clearinghouse for Science Mathematics and Environmental Education.
  • Jablon, J. (2010). Taking it all in observation in the classroom. Teaching Young Children, 4(2), 24-27.
  • Koyunlu Ünlü, Z. (2018). Middle school students’ perceptions about Observation. Abant İzzet Baysal University Journal of Education, 18(3), 1571-1584.
  • Lestari, N. A., Dinata, A. K. K., Deta, U. A., & Pratiwi, H. Y. (2020, March). Students’ Understanding of Physics in Science Process Skills using Inquiry-Link Maps: A Preliminary Study. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series. IOP Publishing.
  • Manery, R. (2003). Cosmic oranges: Observation and inquiry through descriptive writing and art. ReadWriteThink, 13. International Reading Association, National Council of Teachers of English.
  • Marin, A. M. (2013). Learning to attend and observe: Parent-child meaning making in the natural world (Doctoral dissertation, Northwestern University).
  • Martínez, P., Bannan-Ritland, B., Peters, E. E., & Baek, J. (2011). Learning to observe in a geomorphological context. Science Activities, 48(1), 13-22.
  • Maxwell, D. E. (1972). Tree Study—by Observing. The Science Teacher, 39(4), 50-51. Retrieved July 20, 2020, from www.jstor.org/stable/24122149
  • Miles, M. B. & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis. (Second edition). California: SAGE Pub. Inc.
  • Millar, R. (1994). What is scientific method? In R. Levinson (Ed.), Teaching science (pp. 41-48). London: Routledge.
  • MoNE (2005). Fen ve Teknoloji Dersi Öğretim Programı [Science and Technology Curriculum].
  • MoNE (2013). İlköğretim Kurumları (İlkokullar ve Ortaokullar) Fen Bilimleri Dersi (3,4,5,6,7 ve 8. Sınıflar) Öğretim Programı [Primary Education Institutions (Primary and Secondary Schools) Science Course (3,4,5,6,7 and 8th Grades) Curriculum].
  • MoNE (2018). Fen bilimleri dersi öğretim programı (ilkokul ve ortaokul 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 ve 8. sınıflar) [Science curriculum (primary and secondary school 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8th grades)].
  • Monhardt, L. & Monhardt, R. (2006). Creating a context for the learning of science process skills through picture books. Early Childhood Education Journal, 34(1), 67-71.
  • NRC (National Research Council) (1996). National science education standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
  • Oğuz-Ünver, A. & Yürümezoğlu, K. (2009). A teaching strategy for developing the power of observation in science education. Ondokuz Mayis University Journal of Education, 28, 105-119.
  • Oztas Cin, M., & Yurumezoglu, K. (2020). A suggested activity to develop integrated skills and a love of nature in children. Science Activities, 1-9.
  • Park, D. Y. & Logsdon, C. (2015). Effects of modeling instruction on descriptive writing and observational skills in middle school. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 13(1), 71-94.
  • Park, J., & Kim, I. (1998). Analysis of student’s responses to contradictory results obtained by simple observation or controlling variables. Research in Science Education, 28(3), 365-376.
  • Patton, M. (2014). Qualitative evaluation & research methods (4th Edition). USA: SAGE Pub.
  • Remmen, K. B., & Frøyland, M. (2020). Students’ use of observation in geology: towards ‘scientific observation’ in rock classification. International Journal of Science Education, 42(1), 113-132.
  • Rogoff, B., Paradise, R., Mejia Arauz, R., Correa-Chavez, M., & Angelill, C. (2003). Firsthand learning through intent participation. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 175-203.
  • Smith, B. K., & Reiser, B. J. (2005). Explaining behavior through observational investigation and theory articulation. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 14(3), 315-360.
  • Sumrall, W. J., Sumrall, K. M., & Robinson, H. A. (2018). Using Biomimicry to Meet NGSS in the Lower Grades. Science Activities, 55(3-4), 115-126.
  • Swinehart, J. H. (1979). The art of observation. Journal of Chemical Education, 56(2), 110.
  • Swinehart, J. H. (1987). Observation and the Teaching of Science. Journal of Chemical Education, 64(5), 429.
  • Tabak, H., & Çalik, T. (2020). Evaluation of an Educational Reform in the Context of Equal Opportunities in Turkey: Policy Recommendations with Evidence from PISA. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 7(1), 321-334.
  • Tan, M. & Temiz, B. K. (2003). The importance and role of the science process skills in Science Teaching. Pamukkale University Journal of Education, 13(1), 89-101.
  • Tomkins, S. P., & Tunnicliffe, S.D. (2001). Looking for ideas: Observation, interpretation and hypothesis-making by 12-year-old pupils undertaking scientific investigations. International Journal of Science Education, 23, 791-813.
  • Tomlinson, C. A. (2014). Öğrenci gereksinimlerine göre farklılaştırılmış eğitim (Çev. Kültürlerarası İletişim Hizmetleri)[Differentiated education according to student needs (Trans. Intercultural Communication Services]. Ankara: Redhouse. (Publishing date of original article is 2004).
  • Trumbull, D., Bonney, R., & Grudens-Schuck, N. (2005). Developing materials to promote inquiry: Lessons learned. Science Education, 89, 1-22.
  • Worsham, S. (2007). You can learn a lot from your dog. Science Scope, 31(3), 68.
  • Yurumezoglu, K., & M. Oztas Cin (2019). Developing children’s observation skills using a fractal pattern from nature. Science Activities, 56(2), 63-73.

How Gifted Primary School Students Make Sense of the Definition, Purpose and Process of Observation

Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, 206 - 218, 30.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.886013

Abstract

This study examines how gifted primary school students define observation, whether they know the purposes of observation and how they manage to perform it. A qualitative study was designed to thoroughly examine the observation process of 16 gifted students and determine the factors affecting the process. The focus group meetings were analyzed with the students' pictures and the field notes obtained during their observations. The results indicated that when examining the students' behaviors in the observations instead of what they observed, they draw what they already know. Most of the students used the word "to examine" when defining “observation.” Additionally, the students' drawings before the observation were relatively simple and did not have enough details about living beings. Besides, the second-grade students describe observation from a broader perspective, and their observation examples from their past experiences are short-term and object-based. The students also showed differences regarding their grade level in their opinions about which sense organs should be included in the observation process.

References

  • AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science) (1994). Benchmarks for science literacy. Oxford University Press.
  • Aksoy, G. (2019). Exploration of Pre-Service Science Teachers' Perceptions towards Secondary School Science Curriculum. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 6(1), 11-28.
  • Altunbay, M. (2017). “Observation” as a scientific process skill in the Turkish Teaching Curriculum. Journal of Mother Tongue Education, 5(4), 823-836.
  • Bensusen, S. J. (2020). The Power of Observation. Science and Children, 57(5), 60-65.
  • Bodner, G., & Elmas, R. (2020). The Impact of Inquiry-Based, Group-Work Approaches to Instruction on Both Students and Their Peer Leaders. European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 8(1), 51-66.
  • Brown, P. L., & Concannon, J. (2016). Students use of the PSOE model to understand weather and climate. Science Activities, 53(3), 87-91.
  • Chalmers, A. F. (2013). What is this thing called science? Hackett Publishing.
  • Checkovich, B. H. & Sterling, D. R. (2001). Oh say can you see. Science and Children, 38(4), 32-35.
  • Chinn, C. A., & Malhotra, B. A. (2001). Epistemologically authentic scientific reasoning. In K. Crowley, C. D. Schunn, & T. Okada (Eds.), Designing for science:Implications from everyday, classroom, and professional settings (pp. 351–392). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Dilek, H., Tasdemir, A., Konca, A.S. & Baltaci, S. (2020). Preschool children’s science motivation and process skills during inquiry-based STEM activities. Journal of Education in Science, Environment and Health (JESEH), 6(2), 92-104.
  • Dotger, S., & Walsh, D. (2015). Elementary art & science: Observational drawing in lesson study. International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, 4(1), 26-38.
  • Driver, R. (1983). The pupil as scientist. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
  • Eberbach, C., & Crowley, K. (2009). From Everyday to Scientific Observation: How Children Learn to Observe the Biologist's World. Review of Educational Research, 79(1), 39-68.
  • Elmas, R. (2020). The Meaning and Characteristics of Context and Students’ Context Preferences in Science Education. Journal of Turkish Chemical Society Section C: Chemistry Education (JOTCSC), 5(1), 53-70.
  • Elmas, R., Akın, F. N., & Geban, Ö. (2013). Ask a scientist website: trends in chemistry questions in Turkey. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 22(4), 559-569.
  • Ewing, A. M. (1936). Turning accidents into profit through careful observation. Journal of Chemical Education, 13(11), 530.
  • Griffiths, A. K. & Thompson, J. (1993). Secondary School Students’ Understandings of Scientific Processes: An Interview Study. Research in Science & Technological Education, 11(1), 15-26.
  • Grimm, E. D., Kaufman, T., & Doty, D. (2014). Rethinking classroom observation. Educational Leadership, 71(8), 24-29.
  • Haslam, F. & Gunstone, R. (1996). Observation in science classes: Students’ beliefs about its nature and purpose. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, St Louis, MO.
  • Haslam, F. & Gunstone, R. (1998). The influence of teachers on student observation in science classes. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, San Diego, CA.
  • Haury, D. L. (2002). Fundamental skills in science: Observation (ERIC Digest EDO-SE-02-05). Columbus, OH: ERIC Clearinghouse for Science Mathematics and Environmental Education.
  • Jablon, J. (2010). Taking it all in observation in the classroom. Teaching Young Children, 4(2), 24-27.
  • Koyunlu Ünlü, Z. (2018). Middle school students’ perceptions about Observation. Abant İzzet Baysal University Journal of Education, 18(3), 1571-1584.
  • Lestari, N. A., Dinata, A. K. K., Deta, U. A., & Pratiwi, H. Y. (2020, March). Students’ Understanding of Physics in Science Process Skills using Inquiry-Link Maps: A Preliminary Study. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series. IOP Publishing.
  • Manery, R. (2003). Cosmic oranges: Observation and inquiry through descriptive writing and art. ReadWriteThink, 13. International Reading Association, National Council of Teachers of English.
  • Marin, A. M. (2013). Learning to attend and observe: Parent-child meaning making in the natural world (Doctoral dissertation, Northwestern University).
  • Martínez, P., Bannan-Ritland, B., Peters, E. E., & Baek, J. (2011). Learning to observe in a geomorphological context. Science Activities, 48(1), 13-22.
  • Maxwell, D. E. (1972). Tree Study—by Observing. The Science Teacher, 39(4), 50-51. Retrieved July 20, 2020, from www.jstor.org/stable/24122149
  • Miles, M. B. & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis. (Second edition). California: SAGE Pub. Inc.
  • Millar, R. (1994). What is scientific method? In R. Levinson (Ed.), Teaching science (pp. 41-48). London: Routledge.
  • MoNE (2005). Fen ve Teknoloji Dersi Öğretim Programı [Science and Technology Curriculum].
  • MoNE (2013). İlköğretim Kurumları (İlkokullar ve Ortaokullar) Fen Bilimleri Dersi (3,4,5,6,7 ve 8. Sınıflar) Öğretim Programı [Primary Education Institutions (Primary and Secondary Schools) Science Course (3,4,5,6,7 and 8th Grades) Curriculum].
  • MoNE (2018). Fen bilimleri dersi öğretim programı (ilkokul ve ortaokul 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 ve 8. sınıflar) [Science curriculum (primary and secondary school 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8th grades)].
  • Monhardt, L. & Monhardt, R. (2006). Creating a context for the learning of science process skills through picture books. Early Childhood Education Journal, 34(1), 67-71.
  • NRC (National Research Council) (1996). National science education standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
  • Oğuz-Ünver, A. & Yürümezoğlu, K. (2009). A teaching strategy for developing the power of observation in science education. Ondokuz Mayis University Journal of Education, 28, 105-119.
  • Oztas Cin, M., & Yurumezoglu, K. (2020). A suggested activity to develop integrated skills and a love of nature in children. Science Activities, 1-9.
  • Park, D. Y. & Logsdon, C. (2015). Effects of modeling instruction on descriptive writing and observational skills in middle school. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 13(1), 71-94.
  • Park, J., & Kim, I. (1998). Analysis of student’s responses to contradictory results obtained by simple observation or controlling variables. Research in Science Education, 28(3), 365-376.
  • Patton, M. (2014). Qualitative evaluation & research methods (4th Edition). USA: SAGE Pub.
  • Remmen, K. B., & Frøyland, M. (2020). Students’ use of observation in geology: towards ‘scientific observation’ in rock classification. International Journal of Science Education, 42(1), 113-132.
  • Rogoff, B., Paradise, R., Mejia Arauz, R., Correa-Chavez, M., & Angelill, C. (2003). Firsthand learning through intent participation. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 175-203.
  • Smith, B. K., & Reiser, B. J. (2005). Explaining behavior through observational investigation and theory articulation. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 14(3), 315-360.
  • Sumrall, W. J., Sumrall, K. M., & Robinson, H. A. (2018). Using Biomimicry to Meet NGSS in the Lower Grades. Science Activities, 55(3-4), 115-126.
  • Swinehart, J. H. (1979). The art of observation. Journal of Chemical Education, 56(2), 110.
  • Swinehart, J. H. (1987). Observation and the Teaching of Science. Journal of Chemical Education, 64(5), 429.
  • Tabak, H., & Çalik, T. (2020). Evaluation of an Educational Reform in the Context of Equal Opportunities in Turkey: Policy Recommendations with Evidence from PISA. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 7(1), 321-334.
  • Tan, M. & Temiz, B. K. (2003). The importance and role of the science process skills in Science Teaching. Pamukkale University Journal of Education, 13(1), 89-101.
  • Tomkins, S. P., & Tunnicliffe, S.D. (2001). Looking for ideas: Observation, interpretation and hypothesis-making by 12-year-old pupils undertaking scientific investigations. International Journal of Science Education, 23, 791-813.
  • Tomlinson, C. A. (2014). Öğrenci gereksinimlerine göre farklılaştırılmış eğitim (Çev. Kültürlerarası İletişim Hizmetleri)[Differentiated education according to student needs (Trans. Intercultural Communication Services]. Ankara: Redhouse. (Publishing date of original article is 2004).
  • Trumbull, D., Bonney, R., & Grudens-Schuck, N. (2005). Developing materials to promote inquiry: Lessons learned. Science Education, 89, 1-22.
  • Worsham, S. (2007). You can learn a lot from your dog. Science Scope, 31(3), 68.
  • Yurumezoglu, K., & M. Oztas Cin (2019). Developing children’s observation skills using a fractal pattern from nature. Science Activities, 56(2), 63-73.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Rıdvan ELMAS
AFYON KOCATEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-7769-2525
Türkiye


Savaş PAMUK (Primary Author)
AKDENİZ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-8661-4262
Türkiye


Yakup SABAN
AFYON KOCATEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-8548-5291
Türkiye

Publication Date June 30, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2

Cite

APA Elmas, R. , Pamuk, S. & Saban, Y. (2021). How Gifted Primary School Students Make Sense of the Definition, Purpose and Process of Observation . International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research , 8 (2) , 206-218 . DOI: 10.33200/ijcer.886013

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IJCER (International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research) ISSN: 2148-3868