Validity and Reliability Study on The Development of Data Literacy Scale for Educators

Abstract views: 52 / PDF downloads: 37


  • Serap ÖZ



Data literacy, Scale development, Educational data mining, Data literacy scale


The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable Likert-type scale which can be used to measure the data literacy skills of the educators. In the development process of the scale, after reviewing the relevant literature, a pool of 130 items was designed and presented to the view of the experts. After the evaluation of experts, the content validity rate and content validity indexes of the items were calculated by using Lawshe method and 39 items were formed. The draft scale of 39 item was applied to 820 teachers and administrators working in public schools in İstanbul 2021-2022 academic year. In order to determine the construct validity of the scale, principal component analysis and factor analysis were performed. As a result of these analyzes, a scale consisting of 3 factors and total 34 items was developed. For reliability, Cronbach α (.952) coefficient was calculated for the overall dimensions of the scale and varimax rotation. The results show that the scale is valid and reliable.

Author Biographies

Serap ÖZ

Corresponding author, Serap Öz,

Serap ÖZ




• Akgün, E. (2019). Educational data mining in 2023 Education Vision. SETA.

• Almy, S., Chong, H., & Dorrington, A. (2019, October 11). Data Literacy. Retrieved from, content/uploads/2016/03/DQC-Data-Literacy-Brief.pdf

• Anagün, Ş. S., Atalay, N., Kılıç, Z., & Yaşar, S. (2016). Developing the 21st century skills efficiency perceptions scale for teacher candidates: A validity and reliability study. Journal of PAU Faculty of Education, 40(40), 160 - 175. doi: 10.9779/PUJE768

• Aydeniz, M. (2017). Our education system and our 21st century dream: a stem-oriented economic roadmap for turkey as we move towards 2045 goals. Trace: Tennessee Research and Creative Exchange.

• Ayre, C., & Scally, A. J. (2014). Critical values for Lawshe’s content validity ratio: revisiting the original methods of calculation. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 47(1), 79-86.

• Bocala, C. and Boudett, K.P. (2015). Teaching educators habits of mind for using data wisely, teachers college record

• Bollier, D. (2010). The promise and peril of big data. Washington: Aspen Institute, Communications and Society Program.The Aspen Institue Publishing Washington DC.

• Creighton, T. (2006). Schools and data: The educator's guide for using data to improve decision making. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

• Çokluk, Ö., Şekercioğlu, G. ve Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2012). Sosyal bilimler için çok değişkenli istatistik: SPSS ve LISREL uygulamaları (Vol. 2). Ankara: Pegem Academy

• Dağ, P. (2019 November, 11). Veri Okuryazarlığını Anlamak – I. Retrieved okuryazarligini-anlamak-i/

• Demir, K. (2009). İlköğretim Okullarında Verilere Dayalı Karar Verme. Theory and Practice Education Management, 59(59), 367 - 397.

• Driscoll, M. (2019, November 19). Future-focused strategic plannıng for schools: the ‘what’ and the ‘why’ need a ‘how’. Retrieved from

• Drucker, P. (1996). 21. yüzyıl için yönetim tartışmaları. Epsilon Publishing.

• Friedman, T. (2020, January 8). Retrieved from

• Göksün, D. O. (2016). Öğretmen Adaylarının 21. Yy. Öğrenen Becerileri Ve 21. Yy. Öğreten Becerileri Arasındaki İlişki.( yayımlanmamış doktora tezi). Eskişehir: Anadolu Üniversitesi.

• Green, J.L.,Wilson, S, Versland, T., Gibson L. Ve Nollmeyer G.(2016). Teachers and data literacy: a blueprint for professional development to foster data driven decision making, Columbia International Publishing Journal of Continuing Education and Professional Development 3(1).14-32 doi:10.7726/jcepd.2016.1002

• Eğitim Reformu Girişimi (2019 May 5). Veri Okuryazarlığını anlamak Retrieved from

• Ikemoto, G. S., & Marsh, J. A. (2007). Cutting through the data-driven mantra: Different conceptions of data-driven decision making. In P. A. Moss (Ed.). Evidence and decision making (pp. 105–131). USA: Wiley Blackwell.

• Ingram, D., Louis, K. R. S., & Schroeder, R. (2004). Accountability policies and teacherdecision making: Barriers to the use of data to improve practice. Teachers College Record, 106(6), 1258–1287

• Karasar, N. (2010). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemi: kavramlar, ilkeler, teknikler. Ankara: Nobel Yayınevi.

• Kekahio, W., & Baker, M. (2013). Five steps for structuring data-informed conversations and action in education (REL 2013–001) Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific.

• Kippers, W. B, Poortman, C.L.,Schildkamp, K. and Visscher, A. J.(2018). Data literacy: What do educators learn and struggle with during a data use intervention? Studies in Educational Evaluation. 56, 21 -31 DOI: 10.1016/j.stueduc.2017.11.001

• Kline, P. (2014). An easy guide to factor analysis. New York: Routledge.

• Kyllonen, P. C. (2012). Measurement of 21st Century Skills Within the Common Core State Standards. Invitational Research Symosium of Technology Enhanced Assesment, (s. 1 - 22).

• Long and Siemens, G. (2001). Penetrating The Analytics in Learning and Education. Educause, 30 - 32.

• Mandinach, E. B. (2012). A perfect time for data use: Using data-driven decision making to inform practice. Educational Psychologist, 47(2), 71–85.

• Mandinach, E. B., & Gummer, E. S. (2013). A systemic view of implementing data literacy in educator preparation. Educational Researcher, 42(1), 30-37.

• Mandinach, E., & Gummer, E. (2016). Data Literacy for Educators: Making It Count in Teacher Preparation and Practice.

• Mandinach, E., & Gummer, E. (2016). Every teacher should succeed with data literacy.Sage Journals 97(8) 43-46

• Mandinach, E. ( 2014 November 20). Data Literacy For Teachers: What is it, what do we know about how to make it happen and why is it important? . Retrieved from

• Mandinach, E., Friedman, J. M.; Gummer, E. (2015). How Can Schools of Education Help to Build Educators' Capacity to Use Data? A Systemic View of the Issue, Teachers College Record, 117(4), 1-50.

• MEB . (2008). Öğretmen yeterlikleri: Öğretmenlik mesleği. Ankara.

• MEB. (2017). Öğretmenlerin Genel ve Mesleki Yeterlilikleri. Ankara: MEB

• MEB (2018, November 11 ). 2023 Eğitim Vizyon Belgesi. Retrieved from

• MEB ( 2019, May 19). Retrieved from a

• Morrow, J. (2018). Developing a data literate workforce.

• Özdemir, A., Saylam, R., & Bilen, B. (2018, November 5). Retrieved Eğitim Sisteminde Veri Madenciliği Uygulamaları ve Farkındalık Üzerine Bir Durum Çalışması. Atatürk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi.

• Özen, Z., Kartal, E., & Emre, İ. (2017). Eğitimde Büyük Veri. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 183

• Romero, C., & Ventura, S. (2008). Educational Data Mining: A Survey from 1995 to 2005. Expert Systems with Applications, 125 - 146.

• Sahlberg, P., & Hasak, J. (2016). Büyük Veri Ne Kadar Büyük? (06/06/209) Retrieved ttps://

• Salmacia, K. A. (2017). Developing outcome-driven, data-literate teachers. (Publication No.1957375679) (Unpublished doctoral dissertation), University of Pennsylvania. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

• Schildkamp, K., & Lai, M. K. (2013). Introduction. In K. Schildkamp, M. K. Lai, & L. Ear

• Schildkamp, K., Karbautzki, L., & Vanhoof, J. (2014). Exploring data use practices aroundEurope: Identifying enablers and barriers. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 42(1),15–24.

• Şencan, H. (2005). Sosyal ve davranışsal ölçümlerde güvenilirlik ve geçerlilik. Ankara: Seçkin Matbaası.

• Tashakkori, A. & Creswell, J. W. (2008). Envisioning the future stewards of the social behavioural research enterprise. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 2(4), 291-295.

• Tavşancıl, E. (2014). Tutumların Ölçülmesi ve SPSS ile Veri Analizi, Ankara: Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.

• Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st century skills: Learning for life in our times:. John Wiley & Sons.

• Tutaysalgır, H. (2019, November 11). Retrieved from

• UNESCO Education Position Paper (2004). The plurality of literacy and the implications of its policies and programs, p.13. Accessed at images/0013/001362/136246e.pdf

• Wagner, T. (2008). The global achievement gap: Why even our best schools don't. Basiz Books.

• Yurdugül, H. ve Bayrak, F. (2012). Ölçek geliştirme çalışmalarında kapsam geçerlik ölçüleri: Kapsam geçerlik indeksi ve Kappa istatistiğinin karşılaştırılması. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, Özel sayı 2: 264-271.




How to Cite

ÖZ, S., & ÖZDEMİR, A. (2022). Validity and Reliability Study on The Development of Data Literacy Scale for Educators. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 9(3), 649–661.